Determination of Cadmium Levels in Agricultural Soils of Some Regions in Syria

Ranim Ibrahim(1), Sophie Barguil(2), Sondos Hesenow(3*)

(1) Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University, Syria
(2) Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University, Syria
(3) Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University
(*) Corresponding Author


Soil pollution with heavy metals has become a serious global threat, largely due to anthropogenic activities, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic known heavy metals. This study aimed to assess cadmium levels in several agricultural soils in several Syrian regions. Soil samples were taken from six agricultural lands, prepared, and processed to determine the total content of cadmium using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the values of cadmium concentration ranged between 0.60 and 1.48 ppm in the studied soil samples, exceeding the permissible limit in some areas. Cadmium values were higher in farmland soils near industrial facilities than those far from them. This study indicates the spread of Cd contamination throughout the study area, significantly near the industrial activities; thus, it may impact local agricultural production safety and human health.


cadmium; contamination; agricultural soil; atomic absorption spectrometry

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Li, C., Zhou, K., Qin, W., Tian, C., Qi, M., Yan, X., and Han, W., 2019, A review on heavy metals contamination in soil: Effects, sources, and remediation techniques, Soil Sediment Contam.: Int. J., 28 (4), 380–394.

[2] Bayata, A., 2020, Assessment, accumulation, toxicity and importance of heavy metals in agricultural soil and living system - Review, Am. J. Environ. Prot., 9 (6), 116–119.

[3] Alengebawy, A., Abdelkhalek, S.T., Qureshi, S.R., and Wang, M.Q., 2021, Heavy metals and pesticides toxicity in agricultural soil and plants: Ecological risks and human health implications, Toxics, 9 (3), 42.

[4] Hu, Z., Li, J., Wang, H., Ye, Z., Wang, X., Li, Y., Liu, D., and Song, Z., 2019, Soil contamination with heavy metals and its impact on food security in China, J. Geosci. Environ. Prot., 7 (5), 168–183.

[5] Wuana, R.A., and Okieimen, F.E., 2011, Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation, ISRN Ecol., 2011, 402647.

[6] Masindi, V., and Muedi, K.L., 2018, “Environmental Contamination by Heavy Metals” in Heavy Metals, Eds. Saleh, H.M., and Aglan, R.F., IntechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia, 115–133.

[7] Alves, L.R., dos Reis, A.R., and Gratão, P.L., 2016, Heavy metals in agricultural soils: From plants to our daily life, Científica, 44 (3), 346-361.

[8] Kubier, A., Wilkin, R.T., and Pichler, T., 2019, Cadmium in soils and groundwater: A review, Appl. Geochem., 108, 104388.

[9] Arora, S., Jain, C.K., and Lokhande, R.S., 2017, Review of heavy metal contamination in soil, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Nat Resour., 3 (5), 139–144.

[10] Štofejová, L., Fazekaš, J., and Fazekašová, D., 2021, Analysis of heavy metal content in soil and plants in the dumping ground of magnesite mining factory Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia), Sustainability, 13 (8), 4508.

[11] Li, G., Lu, N., Wei, Y., and Zhu, D., 2018, Relationship between heavy metal content in polluted soil and soil organic matter and pH in mining areas, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 394, 052081.

[12] Wen, J., Wu, C., Bi, X., Zhang, S., Ouyang, H., Ye, J., Ohnuki, T., and Yu, Q., 2023, Soil pH change induced by smelting activities affects secondary carbonate production and long-term Cd activity in subsoils, Appl. Geochem., 152, 105663.

[13] Zhang, J., Wu, Y., and Xu, Y., 2016, Factors Affecting the Levels of Pb and Cd Heavy Metals in Contaminated Farmland Soils, Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Biological Engineering and Pharmacy (BEP 2016), Atlantis Press, 379–387.

[14] Haider, F.U., Liqun, C., Coulter, J.A., Cheema, S.A., Wu, J., Zhang, R., Wenjun, M., and Farooq, M., 2021, Cadmium toxicity in plants: Impacts and remediation strategies, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 211, 111887.

[15] Asrari, E., 2014, Heavy Metal Contamination of Water and Soil: Analysis, Assessment, and Remediation Strategies, 1st Ed., Apple Academic Press, New York.

[16] Amouei, A., Cherati, A., and Naghipour, D., 2018, Heavy metals contamination and risk assessment of surface soils of Babol in northern Iran, Health Scope, 7 (1), e62423.

[17] Sor, A.L., Edori, O.S., Nwineewii, J.D., 2020, Concentrations of heavy metals in farmland soils from selected oil bearing communities in Gokana, Rivers State, Nigeria, Int. J. Res. Sci. Innovation, 7 (5), 173–180

[18] Maas, S., Scheifler, R., Benslama, M., Crini, N., Lucot, E., Brahmia, Z., Benyacoub, S., and Giraudoux, P., 2010, Spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in urban, suburban and agricultural soils in a Mediterranean city of Algeria, Environ. Pollut., 158 (6), 2294–2301.

[19] Rahman, S.H., Khanam, D., Adyel, T.M., Islam, M.S., Ahsan, M.A., and Akbor, M.A., 2012, Assessment of heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), Bangladesh: Implication of seasonal variation and indices, Appl. Sci., 2 (3), 584–601.

[20] Yang, J., Ma, S., Zhou, J., Song, Y., and Li, F., 2018, Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables and health risk assessment of inhabitants in Daye, China, J. Int. Med. Res., 46 (8), 3374–3387

[21] Kelmendi, M., Sadiku, M., Kadriu, S., Dobroshi, F., and Igrishta, L., Baruti, B., 2018, Research of heavy metals on the agricultural land in Bajgora region, Kosovo, Acta Chem. Iasi, 26, 105–122.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 728 | views : 300

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.