Synthesis and Characterization of Oligomer Bis(trans-2,3-dibromo-4-hydroxy-2-butenyl)terephthalate as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor on Mild Steel in 1 M H3PO4 Solution

Rasha Jasim Tuama(1*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, 64001, Iraq
(*) Corresponding Author


Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste was depolymerized by trans-2,3-dibromo-2-butene-1,4-diol in the presence of manganese acetate as a catalyst using microwave irradiation as opposed to the conventional heating process in order to reduce the time required for PET depolymerization. The depolymerization product bis(trans-2,3-dibromo-4-hydroxy-2-butenyl)terephthalate (BDBHBT) was isolated, characterized, and evaluated as a green inhibitor for mild corrosion steel in corrosive 1 M H3PO4 medium. This product was characterized using FTIR and 1H-NMR. The effects of immersion time, inhibitor concentration, and reaction temperature were studied. The chemical technique utilized in this study was weight loss, while the electrochemical technique employed an open circuit potential. With 0.6 g/L of BDBHBT inhibitor, the highest corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.3% was observed. The kinetic and thermodynamic functions were calculated, and the results indicated that the investigated inhibitor was physically adsorbed on the surface and confirmed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This study aims to lessen pollution of the environment by transforming PET waste to a beneficial oligomer BDBHBT and estimating the inhibitory effect of this product on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H3PO4.


poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste; green corrosion inhibitor; phosphoric acid; weight loss; open circuit potential


[1] Singh, N., Hui, D., Singh, R., Ahuga, I.P.S., Feo L., and Fraternali, F., 2017, Recycling of plastic solid waste: A state of art review and future applications, Composites, Part B, 115, 409–422.

[2] Siročić, A.P., Fijačko, A., and Hrnjak-Murgić, Z., 2013, Chemical recycling of postconsumer poly(ethylene-terephthalate) bottles - Depolymerization study, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q., 27 (1), 65–71.

[3] Khoonkari, M., Haghighi, A.H., Sefidbakht, Y., Shekoohi, K., and Ghaderian, A., 2015, Chemical recycling of PET wastes with different catalysts, Int. J. Polym. Sci., 2015, 124524.

[4] Helms, B.A., and Russell, T.P., 2016, Reaction: polymer chemistries enabling cradle-to-cradle life cycles for plastics, Chem, 1 (6), 816–818.

[5] Archna, A., Moses, V., Sagar, S., Shivraj, V., and Chetan, S., 2015, A review on processing of waste PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastics, Int. J. Polym. Sci. Eng., 1 (2), 1–13.

[6] Jamdar, V., Kathalewar, M., Dubey, K.A., and Sabnis, A., 2017, Recycling of PET wastes using electron beam radiations and preparation of polyurethane coatings using recycled material, Prog. Org. Coat., 107, 54–63.

[7] Aguado, A., Martínez, L., Becerra, L., Arieta-araunabeña, M., Arnaiz, S., Asueta, A., and Robertson, I., 2014, Chemical depolymerisation of PET complex waste: Hydrolysis vs. glycolysis, J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., 16 (2), 201–210.

[8] Ghaderian, A., Haghighi, A.H., Taromi, F.A., Abdeen, Z., Boroomand, A., and Taheri, S.M.R., 2015, Characterization of rigid polyurethane foam prepared from recycling of PET waste, Period. Polytech., Chem. Eng., 59 (4), 296–305.

[9] Fukushima, K., Lecuyer, J.M., Wei, D.S., Horn, H.W., Jones, G.O., Al-Megren, H.A., Alabdulrahman, A.M., Alsewailem, F.D., McNeil, M.A., Rice, J.E., and Hedrick, J.L., 2013, Advanced chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) through organocatalytic aminolysis, Polym. Chem., 4 (5), 1610–1616.

[10] Al-Sabagh, A.M., Yehia, F.Z., Eissa, A.M.M.F., Moustafa, M.E., Eshaq, G., Rabie, A.R.M. and ElMetwally, A.E., 2014, Glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) catalyzed by the Lewis base ionic liquid [Bmim][OAc], Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 53 (48), 18443–18451.

[11] Ugi, B.U, Obeten, M.E, Bassey, V.M., Hitler, L., Adalikwu, S.A., Omaliko, C.E., Nandi, D.O., and Uwah, I.E., 2022, Adsorption and inhibition analysis of aconitine and tubocurarine alkaloids as eco-friendly inhibitors of pitting corrosion in ASTM – A47 low carbon steel in HCl acid environment, Indones. J. Chem., 22 (1), 1–16.

[12] Salleh, N.I.H., and Abdullah, A., 2019, Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel using palm oil leaves extract, Indones. J. Chem., 19 (3), 747–752.

[13] Baari, M.J., Bundjali, B., and Wahyuningrum, D., 2021, Performance of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan as corrosion and scale inhibitors in CO2 saturated brine solution, Indones. J. Chem., 21 (4), 954–967.

[14] Khadom, A.A., and Farhan, S.N., 2018, Corrosion inhibition of steel in phosphoric acid, Corros. Rev., 36 (3), 267–280.

[15] Arab, S.T., and Al-Turkustani, A., 2006, Corrosion inhibition of steel in phosphoric acid by phenacyldimethyl sulfonium bromide and some of its p-substituted derivatives, Port. Electrochim. Acta, 24, 53–69.

[16] Abdel Hameed, R.S., 2017, Solvent free glycolysis of plastic waste as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in sulfuric acid, J. New Mater. Electrochem. Syst., 20 (3), 141–149.

[17] Alvarez-Pampliega, A., Hauffman, T., Petrova, M., Breugelmans, T., Muselle, T., Van den Bergh, K., De Strycker, J., Terryn, H., and Hubin, A., 2014, Corrosion study on Al-rich metal-coated steel by odd random phase multisine electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochim. Acta, 124, 165–175.

[18] Abdallah, M., Al-Tass, H.M., AL Jahdaly, B.A., and Fouda, A.S., 2016, Inhibition properties and adsorption behavior of 5-arylazothiazole derivatives on 1018 carbon steel in 0.5M H2SO4 solution, J. Mol. Liq., 216, 590–597.

[19] Hamani, H., Douadi, T., Al-Noaimi, M., Issaadi, S., Daoud, D., and Chafaa, S., 2014, Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies of some azomethine compounds as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid, Corros.Sci., 88, 234–245.

[20] Al-Sabagh, A.M., Yehia, F.Z., Eshaq, G., Rabie, A.M., and ElMetwally, A.E., 2016, Greener routes for recycling of polyethylene terephthalate, Egypt. J. Pet., 25 (1), 53–64.

[21] Chaudhary, S., Surekha, P., Kumar, D., Rajagopal, C., and Roy, P.K., 2013, Microwave assisted glycolysis of poly(ethylene terepthalate) for preparation of polyester polyols, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 129 (5), 2779–2788.

[22] Perez, N., 2016, Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science, 2nd Ed., Springer, Cham, Switzerland.

[23] Machuca, L.L., Lepkova, K., and Petroski, A., 2017, Corrosion of carbon steel in the presence of oilfield deposit and thiosulphate-reducing bacteria in CO2 environment, Corros. Sci., 129, 16–25.

[24] Chidiebere, M.A., Oguzie, E.E., Liu, L., Li, Y., and Wang, F., 2015, Adsorption and corrosion inhibiting effect of riboflavin on Q235 mild steel corrosion in acidic environments, Mater. Chem. Phys., 156, 95–104.

[25] Yohai, L., Vázquez, M., and Valcarce, M.B., 2013, Phosphate ions as corrosion inhibitors for reinforcement steel in chloride-rich environments, Electrochim. Acta, 102, 88–96.

[26] Abdel Hameed, R.S., Al Elaimi, M., Qureshi, M.T., Farghaly, O.A., and Abd el-kader, M.F.H., 2021, Green synthesis for nonionic surfactants from poly(etheleneterphthalate) plastic waste, Egypt. J. Chem., 64 (2), 773–780.

[27] Yan, Y., Lin, X., Zhang, L., Zhou, H., Wu, L., and Cai, L., 2017, Electrochemical and quantum-chemical study on newly synthesized triazoles as corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in 1 M HCl, Res. Chem. Intermed., 43 (5), 3145–3154.

[28] Loto, R.T., and Olowoyo, O., 2018, Corrosion inhibition properties of the combined admixture of essential oil extracts on mild steel in the presence of SO42− anions, S. Afr. J. Chem. Eng., 26, 35–41.

[29] Biswas, A., Pal., S., and Udayabhanu, G., 2015, Experimental and theoretical studies of xanthan gum and its graft co-polymer as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 15% HCl, Appl. Surf. Sci., 353, 173–183.

[30] Atta, A.M., El-Mahdy, G.A., Al-Lohedan, H.A., and Ezzat, A.O., 2014, Synthesis and application of hybrid polymer composites based on silver nanoparticles as corrosion protection for line pipe steel, Molecules, 19 (5), 6246–6262.

[31] Tao, Z., He, W., Wang, S., Zhang, S., and Zhou, G., 2012, A study of differential polarization curves and thermodynamic properties for mild steel in acidic solution with nitrophenyltriazole derivative, Corros. Sci., 60, 205–213.

[32] Abdallah, M., Fawzy, A., and Alfakeer, M., 2020, Inhibition potentials and adsorption performance of two sulfonylurea antibiotic expired drugs on the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 15, 10289–10303.

[33] Mourya, P., Singh, P., Tewari, A.K., Rastogi, R.B., and Singh, M.M., 2015, Relationship between structure and inhibition behaviour of quinolinium salts for mild steel corrosion: Experimental and theoretical approach, Corros. Sci., 95, 71–87.

[34] Khaled, K.F., and Amin, M.A., 2008, Computational and electrochemical investigation for corrosion inhibition of nickel in molar nitric acid by piperidines, J. Appl. Electrochem., 38 (11), 1609–1621.

[35] Singh, A., Ansari, K.R., Haque, J., Dohare, P., Lgaz, H., Salghi, R., and Quraishi, M.A., 2018, Effect of electron donating functional groups on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid: Experimental and quantum chemical study, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 82, 233–351.

[36] Khaled, K.F., 2009, Experimental and atomistic simulation studies of corrosion inhibition of copper by a new benzotriazole derivative in acid medium, Electrochim. Acta, 54 (18), 4345–4352.

[37] Zaafarany, I.A., and Ghulman, H.A., 2013, Ethoxylated fatty amines as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solutions, Int. J. Corros. Scale Inhib., 2 (2), 82–91.

[38] Abdel Hameed, R.S., 2018, Cationic surfactant - Zn+2 system as mixed corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in sodium chloride corrosive medium, Port. Electrochim. Acta, 36 (4), 271–283.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 884 | views : 382 | views : 190

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.