The Comparative of α- and β-Cyclodextrin as Stabilizing Agents on AuNPs and Application as Colorimetric Sensors for Fe3+ in Tap Water

Adhi Maulana Yusuf(1), Satrio Kuntolaksono(2), Agustina Sus Andreani(3*)

(1) Research Centre for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Kawasan Puspiptek, Building 452, Serpong, Banten 15314, Indonesia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puspiptek, Serpong, Banten 15314, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puspiptek, Serpong, Banten 15314, Indonesia
(3) Research Centre for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Kawasan Puspiptek, Building 452, Serpong, Banten 15314, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


In this study, AuNPs were reduced using ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (o-HBA) and various stabilizing agents (α-CDs and β-CDs). The stability, shape, size, and sensitivity of the Fe3+ detection of AuNPs α-CDs and AuNP β-CDs are compared. Both nanomaterials were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopes (TEM). After the addition of Fe3+, the absorption rate of surface plasma resonance (SPR) increased to 524 nm, and the color of AuNPs α-CDs and AuNPs β-CDs was changed from pink to red and purple, respectively. AuNPs α-CDs are more uniform in shape and size than AuNPs β-CDs with a size of 23.34 nm. Further, AuNPs α-CDs are more stable, and the absorption rate at 524 nm wavelength decreases by 17.76%. AuNPs α-CDs have a good linear relationship with a linear regression coefficient of 0.996. The sensitivity of AuNPs α-CDs was good with LoD and LoQ both with 1.21 and 4.02 ppm, respectively. These results show that the sensor is superior in determining Fe3+. In addition, AuNPs α-CDs were used to detect Fe3+ in the tap water in South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia.


AuNPs α-CDs; AuNPs β-CDs; colorimetric detection; Fe3+; tap water

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Liang, W., Wang, G., Peng, C., Tan, J., Wan, J., Sun, P., Li, Q., Ji, X., Zhang, Q., Wu, Y., and Zhang, W., 2022, Recent advances of carbon-based nano zero valent iron for heavy metals remediation in soil and water: A critical review, J. Hazard Mater., 426, 127993.

[2] Amirjani, A., Kamani, P., Hosseini, H.R.M., and Sadrnezhaad, S.K., 2022, SPR-based assay kit for rapid determination of Pb2+, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1220, 340030.

[3] Li, H.Y., Zhao, S.N., Zang, S.Q., and Li, J., 2020, Functional metal-organic frameworks as effective sensors of gases and volatile compounds, Chem. Soc. Rev., 49 (17), 6364–6401.

[4] Zuo, Z., Song, X., Guo, D., Guo, Z., and Niu, Q., 2019, A dual responsive colorimetric/fluorescent turn-on sensor for highly selective, sensitive and fast detection of Fe3+ ions and its applications, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A, 382, 111876.

[5] Tammina, S.K., Yang, D., Li, X., Koppala, S., and Yang, Y., 2019, High photoluminescent nitrogen and zinc doped carbon dots for sensing Fe3+ ions and temperature, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 222, 117141.

[6] Amirjani, A., and Haghshenas, D.F., 2018, Ag nanostructures as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)˗based sensors: A mechanistic study with an emphasis on heavy metallic ions detection, Sens. Actuators, B, 273, 1768–1779.

[7] Wu, Y., Pang, H., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Yu, S., Fu, D., Chen, J., and Wang, X., 2019, Environmental remediation of heavy metal ions by novel-nanomaterials: A review, Environ. Pollut., 246, 608–620.

[8] Liu, X., Li, N., Xu, M.M., Wang, J., Jiang, C., Song, G., and Wang, Y., 2018, Specific colorimetric detection of Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution by squaraine-based chemosensor, RSC Adv., 8 (61), 34860–34866.

[9] Wang, R., Jiao, L., Zhou, X., Guo, Z., Bian, H., and Dai, H., 2021, Highly fluorescent graphene quantum dots from biorefinery waste for tri-channel sensitive detection of Fe3+ ions, J. Hazard. Mater., 412, 105962.

[10] Xiong, X., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Liu, C., Xiao, W., Han, J., and Shi, Q., 2020, Simultaneous multiplexed detection of protein and metal ions by a colorimetric microfluidic paper-based analytical device, Biochip J., 14 (4), 429–437.

[11] Soares, B.M., Santos, R.F., Bolzan, R.C., Muller, E.I., Primel, E.G., and Duarte, F.A., 2016, Simultaneous determination of iron and nickel in fluoropolymers by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, Talanta, 160, 454–460.

[12] Lv, X., Man, H., Dong, L., Huang, J., and Wang, X., 2020, Preparation of highly crystalline nitrogen-doped carbon dots and their application in sequential fluorescent detection of Fe3+ and ascorbic acid, Food Chem., 326, 126935.

[13] Pang, L.Y., Wang, P., Gao, J.J., Wen, Y., and Liu, H., 2019, An active metal-organic anion framework with highly exposed SO42− on {001} facets for the enhanced electrochemical detection of trace Fe3+, J. Electroanal. Chem., 836, 85–93.

[14] Karami, C., Alizadeh, A., Taher, M.A., Hamidi, Z., and Bahrami, B., 2016, UV-visible spectroscopy detection of iron(III) ion on modified gold nanoparticles with a hydroxamic acid, J. Appl. Spectrosc., 83 (4), 687–693.

[15] Uzunoğlu, D., Ergüt, M., Kodaman, C.G., and Özer, A., 2020, Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for colorimetric detection of Fe3+ ions, Arabian J. Sci. Eng., s13369-020-04760-8.

[16] Chen, X., Zhao, Q., Zou, W., Qu, Q., and Wang, F., 2017, A colorimetric Fe3+ sensor based on an anionic poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) derivative, Sens. Actuators, B, 244, 891–896.

[17] Kumar, A., Zhang, X., and Liang, X.J., 2013, Gold nanoparticles: Emerging paradigm for targeted drug delivery system, Biotechnol. Adv., 31 (5), 593–606.

[18] Amirjani, A., and Fatmehsari, D.H., 2018, Colorimetric detection of ammonia using smartphones based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles, Talanta, 176, 242–246.

[19] Amirjani, A., Salehi, K., and Sadrnezhaad, S.K., 2022, Simple SPR-based colorimetric sensor to differentiate Mg2+ and Ca2+ in aqueous solutions, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 268, 120692.

[20] Amirjani, A., Bagheri, M., Heydari, M., and Hesaraki, S., 2016, Label-free surface plasmon resonance detection of hydrogen peroxide; A bio-inspired approach, Sens. Actuators, B, 227, 373–382.

[21] Jansook, P., Ogawa, N., and Loftsson, T., 2018, Cyclodextrins: structure, physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical applications, Int. J. Pharm., 535 (1-2), 272–284.

[22] Roy, N., Bomzan, P., and Nath Roy, M., 2020, Probing host-guest inclusion complexes of ambroxol hydrochloride with α- & β-cyclodextrins by physicochemical contrivance subsequently optimized by molecular modeling simulations, Chem. Phys. Lett., 748, 137372.

[23] Gopalan, P.R., 2010, Cyclodextrin-stabilized metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization, Int. J. Nanosci., 9 (5), 487–494.

[24] Liu, Y., Male, K.B., Bouvrette, P., and Luong, J.H.T., 2003, Control of the size and distribution of gold nanoparticles by unmodified cyclodextrins, Chem. Mater., 15 (22), 4172–4180.

[25] Lakkakula, J.R., Divakaran, D., Thakur, M., Kumawat, M.K., and Srivastava, R., 2018, Cyclodextrin-stabilized gold nanoclusters for bioimaging and selective label-free intracellular sensing of Co2+ ions, Sens. Actuators, B, 262, 270–281.

[26] Soomro, R.A., Nafady, A., Sirajuddin, S., Memon, N., Sherazi, T.H., and Kalwar, N.H., 2014, L-cysteine protected copper nanoparticles as colorimetric sensor for mercuric ions, Talanta, 130, 415–422.

[27] Andreani, A.S., Kunarti, E.S., and Santosa, S.J., 2019, Synthesis of gold nanoparticles capped-benzoic acid derivative compounds (o-, m-, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid), Indones. J. Chem., 19 (2), 376–385.

[28] Ndikau, M., Noah, N.M., Andala, D.M., and Masika, E., 2017, Green synthesis and characterization of silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus fruit rind extract, Int. J. Anal. Chem., 2017, 8108504.

[29] Das, R., Sugimoto, H., Fujii, M., and Giri, P.K., 2020, Quantitative understanding of charge-transfer-mediated Fe3+ sensing and fast photoresponse by N-doped graphene quantum dots decorated on plasmonic Au nanoparticles, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 12 (4), 4755–4768.

[30] Mohaghegh, N., Endo-Kimura, M., Wang, K., Wei, Z., Hassani Najafabadi, A., Zehtabi, F., Hosseinzadeh Kouchehbaghi, N., Sharma, S., Markowska-Szczupak, A., and Kowalska, E., 2023, Apatite-coated Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanocomposites: Insights into the antimicrobial mechanism in the dark and under visible-light irradiation, Appl. Surf. Sci., 617, 156574.

[31] Wu, S.P., Chen, Y.P., and Sung, Y.M., 2011, Colorimetric detection of Fe3+ ions using pyrophosphate functionalized gold nanoparticles, Analyst, 136 (9), 1887–1891.

[32] Buduru, P., and Reddy B.C., S.R., 2016, Oxamic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles as a probe for colorimetric detection of Fe3+ ion, Sens. Actuators, B, 237, 935–943.

[33] Tripathy, S.K., Woo, J.Y., and Han, C.S., 2013, Colorimetric detection of Fe(III) ions using label-free gold nanoparticles and acidic thiourea mixture, Sens. Actuators, B, 181, 114–118.

[34] Bindhu, M.R., and Umadevi, M., 2014, Green synthesized gold nanoparticles as a probe for the detection of Fe3+ ions in water, J. Cluster Sci., 25 (4), 969–978.

[35] González, A.G., Herrador, M.Á., and Asuero, A.G., 2010, Intra-laboratory assessment of method accuracy (trueness and precision) by using validation standards, Talanta, 82 (5), 1995–1998.

[36] Hasanah, N., Manurung, R.V., Jenie, S.N.A., Indriyati, I., Prastya, M.E., and Andreani, A.S., 2023, The effect of size control of gold nanoparticles stabilized with α-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin and their antibacterial activities, Mater. Chem. Phys., 302, 127762.

[37] Andreani, A.S., Kunarti, E.S., Hashimoto, T., Hayashita, T., and Santosa, S.J., 2021, Fast and selective colorimetric detection of Fe3+ based on gold nanoparticles capped with ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 9 (5), 105962.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1284 | views : 625

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.