New Design Valve in Flow Injection System for the Determination of Pb(II) in Biological and Environmental Samples

Thekrayat Joodi Jassim(1*), Raisan Kadhim Taresh(2)

(1) Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, University of Sumer Al-Refaee, Thi-Qar 64001, Iraq
(2) Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, University of Sumer Al-Refaee, Thi-Qar 64001, Iraq
(*) Corresponding Author


A strategy to design an injection valve for a streamlined flow injection technique is described as speed and low-cost materials available in the environment for the determination of Pb(II) ion using the organic reagent 4-((4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3-diol at a wavelength of 498 nm. The scope of the study is to find the optimal conditions, including the flow rate of the carrier, the dispersion coefficient, the length of the reaction coil, and the calibration drawing. The results showed that the optimum length of the reaction coil is 20 cm, and the optimum flow rate is 9.1 mL/min, which is equivalent to the pumping rate of 70 F/min. The range of linearity of the study was revealed by a calibration curve of 0.5–27 mg/L, slope = 1.507, correlation coefficient = 0.9995, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) = 0.088 mg/L, and limit of detection (LOD) = 0.026 mg/L. The system under study has a characteristic efficiency. The dispersion coefficient was calculated for concentrations of 10–15 mg/L Pb(II) ion. Furthermore, the accuracy of the flow injection technique in the estimation process was studied and compared with the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) technique.


flow injection analysis; 4-((4-methoxy phenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3-diol reagent; lead ion; environmental samples; homemade valve

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Alkherraz, A.M., Ali, A.K., and Elsherif, K.M., 2020, Removal of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto olive branches activated carbon: equilibrium and thermodynamic studies, Chem. Int., 6 (1), 11–20.

[2] Alnawmasi, J.S., 2023, Construction of amino-thiol functionalized ion-imprinted chitosan for lead (II) ion removal, Carbohydr. Polym., 308, 120596.

[3] Nur, Y., Rohaeti, E., and Darusman, L.K., 2017, Optical sensor for the Determination of Pb2+ based on immobilization of dithizone onto, chitosan-silica membrane, Indones. J. Chem., 17 (1), 7–14.

[4] Pavlov, D., 2017, "Invention and Development of the Lead–Acid Battery" in Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 3–32.

[5] Kurniawan, Y.S., Ryu, M., Sathuluri, R.R., Iwasaki, W., Morisada, S., Kawakita, H., Ohto, K., Maeki, M., Miyasaki, M., and Jumina, J., 2019, Separation of Pb(II) ion with tetraacetic acid derivative of calix[4]arene by using droplet-based microreactor system, Indones. J. Chem., 19 (2), 368–375.

[6] Hashim, A., and Hadi, A., 2017, Novel lead oxide polymer nanocomposites for nuclear radiation shielding applications, Ukr. J. Phys., 62 (11), 978–983.

[7] Gusain, R., Kumar, N., Fosso-Kankeu, E., and Ray, S.S., 2019, Efficient removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from industrial mine water by a hierarchical MoS2/SH-MWCNT nanocomposite, ACS Omega, 4 (9), 13922–13935.

[8] Gao, P., Xiao, B., Liu, W., Zhang, X., Dong, J., and Xue, P., 2020, Analysis and health risk assessment of heavy metal in lotus root, Environ. Chem., 39 (2), 362–370.

[9] Tong, J., Jiang, Q., Ferguson, A.J., Palmstrom, A.F., Wang, X., Hao, J., Dunfield, S.P., Louks, A.E., Harvey, S.P., Li, C., Lu, H., France, R.M., Johnson, S.A., Zhang, F., Yang, M., Geisz, J.F., McGehee, M.D., Beard, M.C., Yan, Y., Kuciauskas, D., Berry, J.J., and Zhu, K., 2022, Carrier control in Sn–Pb perovskites via 2D cation engineering for all-perovskite tandem solar cells with improved efficiency and stability, Nat. Energy, 7 (7), 642–651.

[10] Qu, J., Lin, X., Ziyang, L., Liu, Z., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, S., Meng, Q., Tao, Y., Hu, Q., and Zhang, Y., 2022, One-pot synthesis of Ca-based magnetic hydrochar derived from consecutive hydrothermal and pyrolysis processing of bamboo for high-performance scavenging of Pb(Ⅱ) and tetracycline from water, Bioresour. Technol., 343, 126046.

[11] Chlaib, H.K., and Jassim, T.J., 2022, Study the monthly changes in the physical and chemical properties of Al-Garraf river water in Qalat Suker city, Dec. 2019-April, 2020, a sustainable study, Univ. Thi-Qar J. Agric. Res., 11 (1), 1–19.

[12] Shanshal, M., Faris, S.S., and Shihab, O.H., 2020, Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the soil of Fellujah city, J. Univ. Anbar Pure Sci., 14 (2), 32–37.

[13] Chilian, A., Tanase, N.M., Popescu, I.V., Radulescu, C., Bancuta, O.R., and Bancuta, I., 2022, Long-term monitoring of the heavy metals content (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb) in wastewater before and after the treatment process by spectrometric methods of atomic absorption (FAAS and ETAAS), Rom. J. Phys., 67, 804.

[14] Suprun, E.V., Daboss, E.V., Pleshakov, V.M., Vokhmyanina, D.V., Radko, S.P., Karyakin, A.A., Kozin, S.A., Makarov, A.A., and Mitkevich, V.A., 2022, Application of Prussian Blue modified carbon electrodes for amperometric detection of amyloid-β peptides by flow injection analysis, Electrochim. Acta, 406 (20), 139829.

[15] Wang, Y., Ge, H., Wu, Y., Ye, G., Chen, H., and Hu, X., 2014, Construction of an electrochemical sensor based on amino-functionalized metal-organic frameworks for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of lead, Talanta, 129, 100–105.

[16] Jassim, T.J., Hesson, H.M., and Karam, F.F., 2023, Preparation and characterization of new hetrocyclic azo thiozal dye ligand and its use as a reagent for determination of Zn+2 ion in drug by new analytical method, J. Med. Chem. Sci., 6 (4), 857–867.

[17] Karimi-Maleh, H., Darabi, R., Shabani-Nooshabadi, M., Baghayeri, M., Karimi, F., Rouhi, J., Alizadeh, M., Karaman, O., Vasseghian, Y., and Karaman, C., 2022, Determination of D&C Red 33 and Patent Blue V Azo dyes using an impressive electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with ZIF-8/g-C3N4/Co and ionic liquid in mouthwash and toothpaste as real samples, Food Chem. Toxicol., 162, 112907.

[18] Karimi-Maleh, H., Beitollahi, H., Senthil Kumar, P., Tajik, S., Mohammadzadeh Jahani, P., Karimi, F., Karaman, C., Vasseghian, Y., Baghayeri, M., Rouhi, J., Show, P.L., Rajendran, S., Fu, L., and Zare, N., 2022, Recent advances in carbon nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for food azo dyes detection, Food Chem. Toxicol., 164, 112961.

[19] Afaq, J.K., 2021, Preparation and characterization of some complexes of transition elements with heterocyclic ligand mixture, Thesis, University of Kufa.

[20] Budinski, V., and Donlagic, D., 2021, All Silica Micro-fluidic flow injection sensor system for colorimetric chemical sensing, Sensors, 21 (12), 4082.

[21] Campmajó, G., Saurina, J., and Núñez, O., 2022, FIA–HRMS fingerprinting subjected to chemometrics as a valuable tool to address food classification and authentication: Application to red wine, paprika, and vegetable oil samples, Food Chem., 373, 131491.

[22] Demir, V., and Ergin, S., 2013, Occurrence and assessment of chemical contaminants in drinking water in Tunceli, Turkey, J. Chem., 2013, 238374.

[23] Wang, T., Xie, T., Liu, Z., and Li, S., 2022, An 84dB-SNDR Low-OSR 4th-order noise-shaping SAR with an FIA-assisted EF-CRFF structure and noise-mitigated push-pull buffer-in-loop technique, 2022 IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, 418–420.

[24] Pagliarini, E., Spinelli, S., Proserpio, C., Monteleone, E., Fia, G., Laureati, M., Gallina Toschi, T., and Dinnella, C., 2022, Sensory perception and food neophobia drive liking of functional plant‐based food enriched with winemaking by‐products, J. Sens. Stud., 37 (1), e12710.

[25] Sofiia, T., Barek, J., and Bohdan, J., 2023, High-performance amperometric biosensor for flow injection analysis consisting of a replaceable lactate oxidase-based mini-reactor and a silver amalgam screen-printed electrode, Electrochim. Acta, 445, 142033.

[26] Manousi, N., Kabir, A., Furton, K.G., Zachariadis, G.A., and Anthemidis, A., 2021, Automated solid phase extraction of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry utilizing a new sol-gel functionalized silica sorbent, Separations, 8 (7), 100.

[27] Klamtet, J., Sanguthai, S., and Sriprang, S., 2007, Determination of lead in aqueous samples using a flow injection analysis system with on-line preconcentration and spectrophotometric detection, NU Sci. J., 4 (2), 122–131.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 989 | views : 457

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.