The Dependence of Boron Concentration in Diamond Electrode for Ciprofloxacin Electrochemical Sensor Application

Ilmi Nur Indriani Savitri(1), Prastika Krisma Jiwanti(2*), Ilmanda Zalzabhila Danistya Putri(3), Irkham Irkham(4), Yasuaki Einaga(5), Ganden Supriyanto(6), Yew Hoong Wong(7), Sachin Kumar Srivastava(8), Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah(9)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(2) Nanotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Multidiscipline, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(7) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; Center of Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
(8) Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Haridwar, Uttarakhand 247667, India
(9) Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study investigates the effects of boron concentration on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes for electrochemical sensors of ciprofloxacin. The effects of boron concentration, scan rate, and pH of BDD electrodes with boron concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1% were examined to determine the optimal conditions. Furthermore, square wave voltammetry (SWV) in phosphate buffer pH 7 was used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of ciprofloxacin. The results revealed a linear calibration curve in the concentration range of 30–100 μM with a recovery of 85–110%. Meanwhile, BDD electrode with the highest boron concentration in this experiment (1%) showed a very low limit of detection of 0.17 μM, meaning that 1% BDD gave a highly sensitive and significant measurement result for the electrochemical sensor of ciprofloxacin. With the results given, this study provides new insights for controlling boron concentrations in diamond electrodes for the electrochemical sensors of quinolone antibiotics.


boron-doped diamond; ciprofloxacin; human and health; voltammetry


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