Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Chitosan Films with the Addition of Anthocyanin Extract from Butterfly Pea for Food Packaging Applications

Siti Khanifah(1), Alda Dwi Karina Legowo(2), Sholihun Sholihun(3), Ari Dwi Nugraheni(4*)

(1) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Composites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CH) polymers, with the addition of anthocyanin (AN) obtained from the butterfly pea flower, were prepared using drop-casting. The composites were made by adding different concentrations of 5–40% anthocyanin with 5 wt.% PVA and 2 wt.% CH solutions (weight ratio of PVA/CH is 80:20). These polymers solution was mixed at 80 °C and dried using the drop-casting method at 25 °C for 48 h. The composites were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis spectroscopy), contact angle, antibacterial properties, and food packaging applications. The morphology obtained using an SEM showed that the PVA/CH surface with AN and glycerol was smoother than that of PVA/CH. The increased absorption at a wavelength of 650–700 nm from UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the success addition of AN. The contact angles of PVA/CH/AN and PVA/CH/GS/AN films were 15°–66°, which showed that the films were hydrophilic. The simple antibacterial test with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus showed 16 mm inhibition zone by adding AN. The test results of these characteristics show the potential for using PVA/CH/AN and PVA/CH/GS/AN composite film to be used as an excellent development food packaging material.


anthocyanin; butterfly pea; chitosan; food packaging; polyvinyl alcohol

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Ali, A., and Ahmed, S., 2018, Recent advances in edible polymer based hydrogels as a sustainable alternative to conventional polymers, J. Agric. Food Chem., 66 (27), 6940–6967.

[2] Arfat, Y.A., Benjakul, S., Prodpran, T., Sumpavapol, P., and Songtipya, P., 2014, Properties and antimicrobial activity of fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin film containing basil leaf essential oil and zinc oxide nanoparticles, Food Hydrocolloids, 41, 265–273.

[3] Arun Karthick, S., Ragavi, T.K., Naresh, K., and Rama Sreekanth, P.S., 2022, A study on collagen-PVA and chitosan-PVA nanofibrous matrix for wound dressing application, Mater. Today: Proc., 56, 1347–1350.

[4] Bang, Y.J., Shankar, S., and Rhim, J.W., 2019, In situ synthesis of multi-functional gelatin/resorcinol/silver nanoparticles composite films, Food Packag. Shelf Life, 22, 100399.

[5] BenBettaïeb, N., Karbowiak, T., Bornaz, S., and Debeaufort, F., 2015, Spectroscopic analyses of the influence of electron beam irradiation doses on mechanical, transport properties and microstructure of chitosan-fish gelatin blend films, Food Hydrocolloids, 46, 37–51.

[6] Bourtoom, T., and Chinnan, M.S., 2008, Preparation and properties of rice starch–chitosan blend biodegradable film, LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 41 (9), 1633–1641.

[7] Han, J.W., Ruiz-Garcia, L., Qian, J.P., and Yang, X.T., 2018, Food packaging: A comprehensive review and future trends, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 17 (4), 860–877.

[8] Hosseini, S.F., Rezaei, M., Zandi, M., and Farahmandghavi, F., 2016, Development of bioactive fish gelatin/chitosan nanoparticles composite films with antimicrobial properties, Food Chem., 194, 1266–1274.

[9] Hu, D., and Wang, L., 2016, Fabrication of antibacterial blend film from poly (vinyl alcohol) and quaternized chitosan for packaging, Mater. Res. Bull., 78, 46–52.

[10] Huang, J., Liu, J., Chen, M., Yao, Q., and Hu, Y., 2021, Immobilization of roselle anthocyanins into polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose film matrix: Study on the interaction behavior and mechanism for better shrimp freshness monitoring, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 184, 666–677.

[11] Kaewklin, P., Siripatrawan, U., Suwanagul, A., and Lee, Y.S., 2018, Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 112, 523–529.

[12] Liu, J., Huang, J., Ying, Y., Hu, L., and Hu, Y., 2021, pH-sensitive and antibacterial films developed by incorporating anthocyanins extracted from purple potato or roselle into chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/nano-ZnO matrix: Comparative study, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 178, 104–112.

[13] Shojaee Kang Sofla, M., Mortazavi, S., and Seyfi, J., 2020, Preparation and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan blends plasticized and compatibilized by glycerol/polyethylene glycol, Carbohydr. Polym., 232, 115784.

[14] Mallakpour, S., and Madani, M., 2012, Transparent and thermally stable improved poly (vinyl alcohol)/Cloisite Na+/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite films: Fabrication, morphology and surface properties, Prog. Org. Coat., 74 (3), 520–525.

[15] Marpaung, A.M., Andarwulan, N., Hariyadi, P., and Nur Faridah, D., 2017, The colour degradation of anthocyanin-rich extract from butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) petal in various solvents at pH 7, Nat. Prod. Res., 31 (19), 2273–2280.

[16] Migliorini, A.A., Piroski, C.S., Daniel, T.G., Cruz, T.M., Escher, G.B., Vieira do Carmo, M.A., Azevedo, L., Marques, M.B., Granato, D., and Rosso, N.D., 2019, Red chicory (Cichorium intybus) extract rich in anthocyanins: Chemical stability, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity in vitro, J. Food Sci., 84 (5), 990–1001.

[17] Ngo, T.M.P., Nguyen, T.H., Dang, T.M.Q., Tran, T.X., and Rachtanapun, P., 2020, Characteristics and antimicrobial properties of active edible films based on pectin and nanochitosan, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 21 (6), 2224.

[18] Moloney, M., Robbins, R.J., Collins, T.M., Kondo, T., Yoshida, K., and Dangles, O., 2018, Red cabbage anthocyanins: The influence of D-glucose acylation by hydroxycinnamic acids on their structural transformations in acidic to mildly alkaline conditions and on the resulting color, Dyes Pigm., 158, 342–352.

[19] Nuanmano, S., Prodpran, T., and Benjakul, S., 2015, Potential use of gelatin hydrolystate as plasticizer in fish myofibrillar protein film, Food Hydrocolloids, 47, 61–68.

[20] Pereira, V.A., de Arruda, I.N.Q., and Stefani, R., 2015, Active chitosan/PVA films with anthocyanins from Brassica oleraceae (red cabbage) as time–temperature indicators for application in intelligent food packaging, Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 180–188.

[21] Qin, C., Li, H., Xiao, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, J., and Du, Y., 2006, Water-solubility of chitosan and its antimicrobial activity, Carbohydr. Polym., 63 (3), 367–374.

[22] Ramli, M.E., Mohd Salleh, R., Tajarudin, H.A., and Zulkurnain, M., 2021, Influence of amylose content on phenolics fortification of different rice varieties with butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) flower extract through parboiling, LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 147, 111493.

[23] Rana, P., Murmu, N., Padhan, S.K., and Sahu, S.N., 2020, Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) extract as a green analytical tool for selective colorimetric detection of bisulphate (HSO4) ion in aqueous medium, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 237, 118376.

[24] Shankar, S., and Rhim, J.W., 2017, Preparation and characterization of agar/lignin/silver nanoparticles composite with ultraviolet light barrier and antibacterial properties, Food Hydrocolloids, 71, 76–84.

[25] Wu, Z., Huang, X., Li, Y.C., Xiao, H., and Wang, X., 2018, Novel chitosan films with laponite immobilized Ag nanoparticles for active food packaging, Carbohydr. Polym., 199, 210–218.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1773 | views : 809

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.