The Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Porous Ceramic-Based Natural Clay and Chitosan Biopolymer Precursors

Suriati Eka Putri(1), Ahyar Ahmad(2*), Indah Raya(3), Rachmat Triandi Tjahjanto(4), Rizal Irfandi(5), Harningsih Karim(6), Susilo Sudarman Desa(7), Abd Rahman(8)

(1) Doctoral Program, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 20, Makassar 90245, Indonesia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Jl. Daeng Tata, Makassar 90244, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 20, Makassar 90245, Indonesia; Research and Development Centre for Biopolymers and Bioproducts, LPPM, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 20, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 20, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(5) Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Puangrimaggalatung, Jl. Sultan Hasanuddin, Madukkeleng, Sengkang 90915, Indonesia
(6) Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy YAMASI, Makassar 90244, Indonesia
(7) School of Bio-Chemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
(8) Inorganic Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Academic Belt Road, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study was conducted to determine the role of thermal treatment on the crystallinity and pore characteristics of porous ceramic, which was prepared from natural clay (NC) and chitosan (CS) biopolymer using the gel casting method. CS was used as an environmentally friendly pore-forming agent. The applied temperature treatment was based on thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) results and followed a sintering temperature of 900 to 1100 °C. The results showed that at sintering temperatures from 900 to 1000 °C, the crystallinities of the ceramic decrease (from 76.06 to 74.06%) and the crystallite size decreases (from 35.71 to 34.47 nm) while the lattice strain increases (calculated from the Full Width at Half Maximum (β) of the diffraction peak). The highest porosity of ceramic occurred at a sintering temperature of 1000 °C of 37.82 ± 0.19, but the formation of heterogeneous microstructure was observed. The resulting pore size for all temperature treatments was almost mesoporous (19.1 Å). Based on the results obtained, it is emphasized that the sintering temperature can be used to adjust the porosity and microstructure of porous ceramics.


porous ceramic; gel casting; sintering; clay

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