Extraction of trans-Anethole from Star Anise (Illicium verum) Using Combination of Microwave, Ultrasonic, and Enzyme Assisted Methods and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activity

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.79341

Elvina Dhiaul Iftitah(1*), Warsito Warsito(2), Vivi Nurhadianty(3), Fitri Ariadna Sodi Miranda(4), Rafika Nur Hafidah(5)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia; Essential Oil’s Institute, Brawijaya University (Entrepreuneur Building, 8th floor), Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia; Essential Oil’s Institute, Brawijaya University (Entrepreuneur Building, 8th floor), Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(3) Essential Oil’s Institute, Brawijaya University (Entrepreuneur Building, 8th floor), Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Jl. M.T. Haryono 167, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(4) Master of Chemistry Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(5) Undergraduate of Chemistry Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study examines the efficiency of non-conventional extraction methods to obtain trans-anethole from Illicium verum using single and combination extraction techniques: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) employing lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. All extraction methods were conducted using 96% ethanol (1:5 w/v) with varying time durations. The resulting product was an oleoresin, subsequently analyzed and separated using thin liquid chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography employing a solvent mixture of toluene and ethyl acetate in a 9:1 ratio and identified via gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). The results revealed that trans-anethole yields from a single extraction method were 30.76% (MAE), 41.05% (UAE), and 40.90% (EAE). The combination of extraction methods, such as MAE-UAE, MAE-EAE, and UAE-EAE, produced trans-anethole yields of approximately 42.73%, 52.80%, and 45.02% respectively, surpassing the yields of the single extraction method. Notably, the triple extraction method of MAE-UAE-EAE yielded the highest trans-anethole content at 56.00%. Antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus was performed on all samples. The trans-anethole demonstrating the highest inhibitory effect was obtained from the double extraction method, particularly the combination of UAE-EAE. These results underscore the synergistic efficiency of combining microwave, ultrasound, and enzymatic extraction methods, highlighting their superior efficacy in obtaining trans-anethole.


Keywords


EAE; Illicium verum; MAE; trans-anethole; UAE

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.79341

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