Protein Modelling Insight to the Poor Sensitivity of Chikungunya Diagnostics on Indonesia’s Chikungunya Virus

Bevi Lidya(1*), Muhammad Yusuf(2), Umi Baroroh(3), Korry Novitriani(4), Bachti Alisjahbana(5), Iman Rahayu(6), Toto Subroto(7)

(1) Doctoral Program of Biotechnology, Postgraduate School, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Dipati Ukur No. 35, Bandung 40132, Indonesia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Bandung 40559, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia; Research Center of Molecular Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Singaperbangsa No. 2, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
(3) Department of Biotechnology, Sekolah Tinggi Farmasi Indonesia, Jl. Soekarno Hatta No. 354, Bandung 40266, Indonesia
(4) Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Bakti Tunas Husada, Jl. Cilolohan No. 36, Tasikmalaya 46115, Indonesia
(5) Health Center Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Prof. Eyckman No.38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia
(7) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia; Research Center of Molecular Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Singaperbangsa No. 2, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Sensitive detection of infectious diseases is crucial for effective clinical care. However, commercial rapid tests may be limited in their ability to detect pathogen variants across different countries. It was found that the sensitivity of a chikungunya rapid test on local strain was only 20.5% as compared to the East, Central, and South Africa (ECSA) phylogroup. Therefore, the development of geographically specific diagnostics is essential. Investigating the distinctive structural properties of a locally sourced antigenic protein is an important initiative for the development of a specific antibody. This study utilized structural bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the differences between the E1-E2 antigenic proteins of the Indonesian chikungunya virus (Ind-CHIKV) and that of ECSA. The results showed that some of the mutation points are located at the antibody binding sites of Ind-CHIKV. G194S and V318R mutations were proposed as distinctive features of Ind-CHIKV, leading to weaker antibody binding compared to ECSA. It suggests that modifying the antibody to accommodate bulkier side chains at positions 194 and 318 could improve its effectiveness against Ind-CHIKV. These insights are valuable for developing a highly sensitive immunoassay for Ind-CHIKV and other regional pathogens, ultimately enhancing diagnostic capabilities in Indonesia.


chikungunya; bioinformatics; diagnostics; Indonesia; molecular dynamics simulation


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