Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Assessment of Hydroxyapatite-Betel Leaf Extract Formulation against Streptococcus mutans In Vitro and In Vivo

Fitriari Izzatunnisa Muhaimin(1*), Sari Edi Cahyaningrum(2), Riska Amelia Lawarti(3), Dina Kartika Maharani(4)

(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic material that is commonly used as a re-mineralizing agent. Adding natural ingredients such as green betel leaf can increase the antibacterial properties due to the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. This study aims to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the formulation of hydroxyapatite-betel leaf extract and the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. To characterize the combination of hydroxyapatite-betel leaf extract, XRD, PSA and FTIR analyses were performed. Particle size analysis showed the smallest results in the variation of betel 0.3 g, which is 690.08 nm. FTIR characterization showed the presence of OH, PO43− and CO32− functional groups from hydroxyapatite and C=O derived from betel leaf extract. In addition, in vitro and in vivo analyses were performed to assess the antibacterial activity of this formulation. The in vitro antibacterial activity test against S. mutans showed strong inhibitory activity. Our finding suggests that the formulation has the potential to be used as a medication or prevention agent for dental caries.


hydroxyapatite; betel leaf; Streptococcus mutans

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