An Overview of the Current State and Prospects for Oil Recovery from Oily Sludge

Chinakulova Aigerim Nurlankyzy(1*), Niyazbekova Rimma Kalmanbayevna(2), Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam(3), Mukhambetov Gabit Mukhambetovich(4), Aimagambetova Raushan Zhanatovna(5), El-Sayed Negim(6), Serekpayeva Mira(7)

(1) S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Nur-Sultan, Zhengis Ave 62, 010000, Kazakhstan
(2) S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Nur-Sultan, Zhengis Ave 62, 010000, Kazakhstan
(3) Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Center (PDRC), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan
(4) Economics, Kazakhstan Institute of Standardization and Metrology, Nur-Sultan, Prospekt Mangilik Yel. 11, 010016, Kazakhstan
(5) Department of Strategic Development and Science of the Kazakhstan Institute of Metrology and Standardization, Nur-Sultan, Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan
(6) School of Petroleum Engineering, Satbayev University, 22 Satpayev Street, 050013 Almaty, Kazakhstan
(7) S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Nur-Sultan, Zhengis Ave 62, 010000, Kazakhstan
(*) Corresponding Author


Oily sludge is a solid emulsified waste created by the petroleum industry. Solid particles, crude oil, and water comprise most of their composition. Because it contains high concentrations of cycloalkanes, benzene series, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other harmful and hazardous substances, it poses a severe risk to human health and the environment. It must be treated to reduce its toxicity. However, crude oil is a significant component of oily sludge and has a high recycling value. As a result, numerous procedures for extracting crude oil from oily sludge have been developed, including solvent extraction, pyrolysis, centrifugation, ultrasonic treatment, electronic treatment, flotation, supercritical treatment, and combination processes. The primary purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of various recycling technologies and to compare their benefits, drawbacks, and ways of action. This concept is expected to be the cornerstone for future recycling technology development.


oily sludge; petroleum industry; hazardous; crude oil; toxicity

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Souas, F., 2022, Rheological behavior of oil sludge from Algerian refinery storage tanks, Pet. Res., 2022, In Press, Corrected Proof.

[2] Jiang, H., Wang, Y., Nie, C., Yan, F., Ouyang, X., and Gong, J., 2021, Oil sludge deposition in storage tanks: A case study for Russian crude oil in Mo-he station, Appl. Sci., 11 (1), 321.

[3] Ba, S.F., Li, Y.L., Qu, Y.D., Zhang, D., Pang, L., Chen, W.W., Wang, Y.Q., and Lu, F., 2016, Deposition law of oil sludge in crude oil storage tank and countermeasures for jet cleaning, Plant Maint. Eng., 2, 68–70.

[4] Mansur, A.A., Pannirselvam, M., Al-Hothaly, K.A., Adetutu, E.M., and Bal, A.S., 2015, Recovery and characterization of oil from waste crude oil tank bottom sludge from Azzawiya oil refinery in Libya, J. Adv. Chem. Eng. 5 (1), 1000118.

[5] Lee, C.L., Tsai, C.H., and Jou, C.H.G., 2020, Energy and resource utilization of refining industry oil sludge by microwave treatment, Sustainability, 12 (17), 6862.

[6] Islam, B., 2015, Petroleum sludge, its treatment and disposal: A review, Int. J. Chem. Sci., 13 (4), 1584–1602.

[7] Hassanzadeh, M., Tayebi, L., and Dezfouli, H., 2018, Investigation of factors affecting on viscosity reduction of sludge from Iranian crude oil storage tanks, Pet. Sci., 15 (3), 634–643.

[8] Tang, X., Wei, X., and Chen, S., 2019, Continuous pyrolysis technology for oily sludge treatment in the chain-slap conveyors, Sustainability, 11 (13), 3614.

[9] Ren, H., Zhou, S., Wang, B., Peng, L., and Li, X., 2020, Treatment mechanism of sludge containing highly viscous heavy oil using biosurfactant, Colloids Surf., A, 585, 124117.

[10] Gopang, I.A., Mahar, H., Jatoi, A.S., Akhtar, K.S., Omer, M., and Azeem, M.S., 2016, Characterization of the sludge deposit in crude oil storage tanks, J. Fac. Eng. Technol., 23 (1), 57–64.

[11] Olajire. A.A., 2020, Recent advances on the treatment technology of oil and gas produced water for sustainable energy industry-mechanistic aspects and process chemistry perspectives, Chem. Eng. J. Adv., 4, 100049.

[12] Maia de Medeiros, A.D., da Silva Junior, C.J.G., de Amorim, J.D.P., Durval, I.J.B., de Santana Costa, A.F., and Sarubbo, L.A., 2022, Oily Wastewater treatment: Methods, challenges, and trends, Processes, 10 (4), 743.

[13] Rocha e Silva, F.C.P., Rocha e Silva, N.M.P., Luna, J.M., Rufino, R.D., Santos, V.A., and Sarubbo, L.A., 2018, Dissolved air flotation combined to biosurfactants: A clean and efficient alternative to treat industrial oily water, Rev. Environ. Sci. Bio/Technol., 17 (4), 591–602.

[14] Galdino, C.J.S., Maia, A.D., Meira, H.M., Souza, T.C., Amorim, J.D.P., Almeida, F.C.G., Costa, A.F.S., and Sarubbo, L.A., 2020, Use of a bacterial cellulose filter for the removal of oil from wastewater, Process Biochem., 91, 288–296.

[15] Hart, A., 2014, A review of technologies for transporting heavy crude oil and bitumen via pipelines, J. Petrol. Explor. Prod. Technol., 4 (3), 327–336.

[16] Chrysalidis, A., and Kyzas, G.Z., 2020, Applied cleaning methods of oil residues from industrial tanks, Processes, 8 (5), 569.

[17] Hu, G., 2016, Development of novel oil recovery methods for petroleum refinery oily sludge treatment, Thesis, University of Northern British Columbia, British Columbia.

[18] Mora, V.C., Morelli, I.S., and Rosso, J.A., 2020, Co-treatment of an oily sludge and aged contaminated soil: Permanganate oxidation followed by bioremediation, J. Environ. Manage., 261, 110169.

[19] Liu, C., Xu, Q., Hu, X., Zhang, S., Zhang, P.Y., and You, Y., 2020, Optimization of process parameters of rhamnolipid treatment of oily sludge based on response surface methodology, ACS Omega, 5 (45), 29333−29341.

[20] Das, S., Kuppanan, N., Channashettar, V.A., and Lal, B., 2018, “Remediation of Oily Sludge- and Oil-Contaminated Soil from Petroleum Industry: Recent Developments and Future Prospects” in Advances in Soil Microbiology: Recent Trends and Future Prospects. Microorganisms for Sustainability, Vol. 3, Eds., Adhya, T., Lal, B., Mohapatra, B., Paul, D., and Das, S., Springer, Singapore, 165–177.

[21] Chen, L., Zhang, X., Sun, L., Xu, H., Si, H., and Mei, N., 2016, Study on the fast pyrolysis of oil sludge and its product distribution by PY-GC/MS, Energy Fuels, 30 (12), 10222–10227.

[22] Hu, G., Li, J., Huang, S., and Li, Y., 2016, Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 51 (11), 921–929.

[23] Liang, J., Zhao, L., and Hou, W., 2017, Solid effect in chemical cleaning treatment of oily sludge, Colloids Surf., A, 522, 38–42.

[24] Duan, M., Wang, X., Fang, S., Zhao, B., Li, C., and Xiong, Y., 2018, Treatment of Daqing oily sludge by thermochemical cleaning method, Colloids Surf., A, 554, 272–278.

[25] da Silva, L.J., Alves, F.C., and de França, F.P., 2012, A Review of the technological solutions for the treatment of oily sludges from petroleum refineries, Waste Manage. Res., 30 (10), 1016–1030.

[26] Kuranchie, F.A., Attiogbe, F., and Quarshie, A.M., 2017, A review of the impacts and management of oily sludge in the oil and gas industry, Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol., 6 (7), 32–37.

[27] Pazoki, M., and Hasanidarabadi, B., 2017, Management of toxic and hazardous contents of oil sludge in Siri Island, Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 3 (1), 33–42.

[28] British Petroleum Company, 2012, BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012, British Petroleum Co., London, 16.

[29] Ramirez, D., Shaw, L.J., and Collins, C.D., 2021, Oil sludge washing with surfactants and co-solvents: oil recovery from different types of oil sludges, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 28 (5), 5867–5879.

[30] Ayol, A., and Yurdakoş, Ö.T., 2019, Chemical and thermal characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge, Desalin. Water Treat., 172, 29–36.

[31] Adeola, A.O., Akingboye, A.S., Ore, O.T., Oluwajana, O.A., Adewole, A.H., Olawade, D.B., and Ogunyele, A.C., 2022, Crude oil exploration in Africa: Socio‑economic implications, environmental impacts, and mitigation strategies, Environ. Syst. Decis., 42 (1), 26–50.

[32] El Mahdi, A.M., Aziz, H.A., and Eqab, E.S., 2017, Review on innovative techniques in oil sludge bioremediation, AIP Conf. Proc., 1892, 040026.

[33] Chu, Z., Gong, Z., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Wu, J., Wang, Z., Guo, Y., Zhang, J., Li, G., Zhang, L., and Wang, H., 2021, Experimental study on kinetic characteristics of oil sludge gasification, Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng., 16 (2), e2616.

[34] Wdowczyk, A., Szymańska-Pulikowska, A., and Domańska, M., 2022, Analysis of the bacterial biocenosis of activated sludge treated with leachate from municipal landfills, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19 (3), 1801.

[35] Goverdovskaya, L.G., Klimavichus, Y.E., and Nosarev, N.S., 2021, Development of mobile technology for the disposal of oily waste, E3S Web Conf., 266, 06011.

[36] Li, X., Zhang, F., Guan, B., Sun, J., and Liao, G., 2020, Review on oily sludge treatment technology, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 467, 012173.

[37] Alexandrovich, D.R., and Sergeevich, M.S., 2018, Innovations aimed at the secondary use of waste of PJSC "RN-Komsomolsk Oil Refinery, Scientific and Technical Conference of Students of the 10th and 11th grades of ROSNEFT,, accessed on July 20, 2022.

[38] Al-Mebayedh, H., Niu, A., and Lin, C., 2022, Petroleum hydrocarbon composition of oily sludge and contaminated soils in a decommissioned oilfield waste pit under desert conditions, Appl. Sci., 12 (3), 1355.

[39] Jafarinejad, S., 2017, “Solid-Waste Management in the Petroleum Industry” in Petroleum Waste Treatment and Pollution Control, Butterworth–Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 269–345.

[40] Zheng, F., Shi, Q., Vallverdu, G.S., Giusti, P., and Bouyssiere, B., 2020, Fractionation and characterization of petroleum asphaltene: Focus on metalopetroleomics, Processes, 8 (11), 1504.

[41] Hamadani, M.A., and Al Ghazi, A.A., 2015, Isolation and identification of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from oil sludge in oil producing area of Basrah, Iraq, Int. J. Eng. Tech. Res., 3 (2), 22–27.

[42] Gbarakoro, T.N., and Bello, A.D., 2022, Assessment of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in oily wastes residual ash at Bodo-Ogoni remediation site, Nigeria, J. Geosci. Environ. Prot., 10, 1–15.

[43] Jasmine, J., and Mukherji, S., 2015, Characterization of oily sludge from a refinery and biodegradability assessment using various hydrocarbon degrading strains and reconstituted consortia, J. Environ. Manage., 149, 118–125.

[44] Pakpahan, E.N., Shafiq, N., Isa, M.H., Kutty, S.R.M., and Mustafa, M.R., 2016, Petroleum sludge thermal treatment and use in cement replacement – A solution towards sustainability, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Civil, Offshore and Environmental Engineering (ICCOEE 2016), 1st ed., Malaysia, 15-17 Aug 2016, CRC Press, 251–256.

[45] Ji, L., Li, W., Li, Y., He, Q., Bi, Y., Zhang, M., Zhang, G., and Wang, X., 2022, Spatial distribution, potential sources, and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface soils under different land-use covers of Shanxi Province, North China, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19 (19), 11949.

[46] Zelinkova, Z., and Wenzl, T., 2015, The occurrence of 16 EPA PAHs in food – A review, Polycyclic Aromat. Compd., 35 (2-4), 248–284.

[47] Aminova, A.S., Gaibullaev, S.A., and Juraev, K.A., 2015, Tech. The use of oil sludge is a rational way of their disposal, Young Sci., 2, 124–126.

[48] Oil sludge: What it is, how it is formed, types, methods of processing and disposal,, accessed on June 15, 2022.

[49] Mitra, S., Chakraborty, A.J., Tareq, A.M., Bin Emran, T., Nainu, F., Khusro, A., Idris, A.M., Khandaker, A.U., Osman, H., Alhumaydhi, F.A., and Simal-Gandara, J., 2022, Impact of heavy metals on the environment and human health: Novel therapeutic insights to counter the toxicity, J. King Saud Univ., Sci., 34 (3), 101865.

[50] Johnson, O.A., and Affam, A.C., 2019, Petroleum sludge treatment and disposal: A review, Environ. Eng. Res., 24 (2), 191–201.

[51] Zhao, S., Zhou, X., Wang, C., and Jia, H., 2018, Dewatering and low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses, Environ. Technol., 39 (21), 2715–2723.

[52] Al-Doury, M.M.I., 2019, Treatment of oily sludge using solvent extraction, Pet. Sci. Technol., 37 (2), 190–196.

[53] Han, M., Yu, L., and Chen, Y.H., 2016, Study on treatment of petrochemical sludge by advanced oxidation process, Oxid. Commun., 39 (2), 1663–1669.

[54] Roldán-Carrillo, T., Castorena-Cortés, G., Zapata-Pefinasco, I., Reyes-Avila, J., and Olguin-Lora, P., 2012, Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility, J. Environ. Manage., 95, 93–98.

[55] Yan, P., Lu, M., Yang, Q., Zhang, H.L., Zhang, Z.Z., and Chen, R., 2012, Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas, Bioresour. Technol., 116, 24–28.

[56] De Almeida, D.G., Soares Da Silva, R.C.F., Luna, J.M., Rufino, R.D., Santos, V.A., Banat, I.M., and Sarubbo, L.A., 2016, Biosurfactants: Promising molecules for petroleum biotechnology advances, Front. Microbiol., 7, 01718.

[57] Chen, H.S., Zhang, Q.M., Yang, Z.J., and Liu, Y.S., 2020, Research on treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom by ball milling combined with ozone-catalyzed oxidation, ACS Omega, 5 (21), 12259–12269.

[58] Han, M., Zhang, J., Chu, W., Chen, J., and Zhou, G., 2019, Research progress and prospects of marine oily wastewater treatment: A review, Water, 11 (12), 2517.

[59] Fonts, I., Gea, G., Azuara, M., Ábrego, J., and Arauzo, J., 2012, Sewage sludge pyrolysis for liquid production: A review, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16 (5), 2781–2805.

[60] Hu, G., Li, J., and Zeng, G., 2013, Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: A review, J. Hazard. Mater., 261, 470–490.

[61] Li, J., Song, X., Hu, G., and Thring, R.W., 2013, Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 48 (11), 1378–1389.

[62] Zhang, J., Li, J.B., Thring, R.W., Hu, X., and Song, X.Y., 2012, Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw, J. Hazard. Mater., 203-204, 195–203.

[63] Gong, Z., Wang, Z., and Wang, Z., 2018, Study on migration characteristics of heavy metals during oil sludge incineration, Pet. Sci. Technol., 36 (6), 469–474.

[64] Hui, K., Tang, J., Lu, H., Xi, B., Qu, C., and Li, J., 2020, Status and prospect of oil recovery from oily sludge: A review, Arabian J. Chem., 13 (8), 6523–6543.

[65] Yang, Q., Zhang, C., Li., L, and Xu, W., 2020, Anaerobic co-digestion of oil sludge with corn stover for efficient biogas production, Sustainability, 12 (5), 1861.

[66] Kankia, M.U., Baloo, L., Mohammed, B.S., Hassan, S.B., Ishak, E.A., and Zango, Z.U., 2020, Review of petroleum sludge thermal treatment and utilization of ash as a construction material, a way to environmental sustainability, Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci., 7 (12), 68–81.

[67] Srivastava, N., Srivastava, M., Gupta, V.K., Manikanta, A., Mishra, K., Singh, S., Singh, S., Ramteke, P.W., and Mishra, P.K., 2018, Recent development on sustainable biodiesel production using sewage sludge, 3 Biotech, 8 (5), 245.

[68] Bora, R.R., Richardson, R.E., and You, F., 2020, Resource recovery and waste-to-energy from wastewater sludge via thermochemical conversion technologies in support of circular economy: A comprehensive review, BMC Chem. Eng., 2 (1), 8.

[69] Kozlova, H.O., 2019, Improving the technology for obtaining building materials from oil sludge, Thesis, Institute of Chemistry and Engineering Ecology, Togliatti State University, Samara, Russia.

[70] Bao, Q., Huang, L., Xiu, J., Yi, L., Zhang, Y., and Wu, B., 2022, Study on the thermal washing of oily sludge used by rhamnolipid/sophorolipid binary mixed bio-surfactant systems, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 240, 113696.

[71] Liu, C., Zhang, Y., Sun, S., Huang, L., Yu, L., Liu, X., Lai, R., Luo, Y., Zhang, Z., and Zhang, Z., 2018, Oil recovery from tank bottom sludge using rhamnolipids, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 170, 14–20.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1376 | views : 637

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.