Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles via Thermal Decomposition for Zn(II) Schiff Base Complex

Hadeer Mohammed Subhi(1), Ali Taleb Bader(2*), Hazim Yahya Al-Gubury(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq
(2) Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq
(3) Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq
(*) Corresponding Author


Zinc(II) oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were easily produced in this research by thermal decomposition of the Zn(II) Schiff base complex. The ligand was synthesized via condensation of benzylamine with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The Zn(II) Schiff base complex was prepared by the reaction between zinc salt and Schiff base with the molar ratio of 1:1 (metal:ligand). The binary complex powder was calcined at 700 °C to produce ZnO nanoparticles. Various methods were used to characterize the Schiff base, complexes, and nanoparticles, including 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR, TGA, DTA thermal analysis, XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, BET, UV-Vis Diffuse Reflectance, atomic absorption, melting point, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. ZnO nanoparticles had an average crystallite size of 48.2 nm.


Schiff base; Zn(II) Schiff base complex; ZnO nanoparticles

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Mahmoud, W.H., Omar, M.M., Sayed, F.N., and Mohamed, G.G., 2018, Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of transition metal complexes of new nano Schiff base derived from L‐histidine and 2‐acetylferrocene and evaluation of biological and anticancer activities, Appl. Organomet. Chem., 32 (7), e4386.

[2] Sahin, M., Kocak, N., Arslan, U., Sahin, O., and Yilmaz, M., 2013, Bis-Schiff base derivatives of 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of their Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes, J. Macromol. Sci., Part A: Pure Appl. Chem., 50 (8), 821–827.

[3] El‐Sonbati, A., Mahmoud, W., Mohamed, G.G., Diab, M., Morgan, S.M., and Abbas, S.Y., 2019, Synthesis, characterization of Schiff base metal complexes and their biological investigation, Appl. Organomet. Chem., 33 (9), e5048.

[4] Dey, D., Kaur, G., Patra, M., Choudhury, A.R., Kole, N., and Biswas, B., 2014, A perfectly linear trinuclear zinc–Schiff base complex: Synthesis, luminescence property and photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide nanoparticle, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 421, 335–341.

[5] Turk, P., Singh, K., and Dhanda, A., 2022, Synthesis, spectroscopic, electrochemical, thermal and antimicrobial studies of Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal complexes of novel bidentate Schiff base ligand, J. Iran. Chem. Soc., 19 (9), 3797–3813.

[6] Saeednia, S., Iranmanesh, P., Ardakani, M.H., Mohammadi, M., and Norouzi, G., 2016, Phenoxo bridged dinuclear Zn(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor for preparation zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies, Mater. Res. Bull., 78, 1–10.

[7] Gharagozlou, M., Naghibi, S., and Ataei, M., 2018, Water‐based synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via decomposition of a ternary zinc complex containing Schiff‐base, chelating, and Phen ligands, J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 65 (10), 1210–1217.

[8] Keerthi, K.D., Santra, B.K., and Lahiri, G.K., 1998, Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes with modified phenolic Schiff base ligands. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and Redox properties, Polyhedron, 17 (8), 1387–1396.

[9] Demetgül, C., Deletıoğlu, D., Karaca, F., Yalçinkaya, S., Tımur, M., and Serın, S., 2010, Synthesis and characterization of a Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzylamine and its Cu (II) complex: Electropolymerization of the complex on a platinum electrode, J. Coord. Chem., 63 (12), 2181–2191.

[10] Makal, A., Schilf, W., Kamieński, B., Szady-Chelmieniecka, A., Grech, E., and Woźniak, K., 2011, Hydrogen bonding in Schiff bases – NMR, structural and experimental charge density studies, Dalton Trans., 40 (2), 421–430.

[11] Gharagozlou, M., Baradaran, Z., and Bayati, R., 2015, A green chemical method for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from solid-state decomposition of Schiff-bases derived from amino acid alanine complexes, Ceram. Int., 41 (7), 8382–8387.

[12] Wang, Y.X., Shen, Z.C., Huang, D.D., and Yang, Z.S., 2018, High-performance ZnO nanosheets/nanocrystalline aggregates composite photoanode film in dye-sensitized solar cells, Mater. Lett., 214, 88–90.

[13] Meng, L., Xu, Q., Sun, Z., Li, G., Bai, S., Wang, Z., and Qin, Y., 2018, Enhancing the performance of room temperature ZnO microwire gas sensor through a combined technology of surface etching and UV illumination, Mater. Lett., 212, 296–298.

[14] Saleem, S., Jameel, M.H., Akhtar, N., Nazir, N., Ali, A., Zaman, A., Rehman, A., Butt, S., Sultana, F., Mushtaq, M., Zeng, J.H., Amami, M., and Althubeiti, K., 2022, Modification in structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) by metal (Ni, Co) dopants for electronic device applications, Arabian J. Chem., 15 (1), 103518.

[15] Khalaji, A.D., 2019, Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles via thermal decomposition from zinc(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor, Chem. Methodol., 3 (5), 571–579.

[16] Li, Q., Cao, W., Lei, J., Zhao, X., Hou, T., Fan, B., Chen, D., Zhang, L., Wang, H., Xu, H., Zhang, R., and Lu, H., 2014, Synthesis and growth mechanism of ZnO rod‐like nanostructures by a microwave‐assisted low‐temperature aqueous solution route, Cryst. Res. Technol., 49 (5), 298–302.

[17] Zhang, X.L., Dai, H.T., Zhao, J.L., Wang, S.G., and Sun, X.W., 2014, Surface‐morphology evolution of ZnO nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method, Cryst. Res. Technol., 49 (4), 220–226.

[18] Li, T., Cao, Z., You, H., Xu, M., Song, X., and Fang, J., 2013, Controllable growth of ZnO mesocrystals using a facile electrochemical approach, Chem. Phys. Lett., 555, 154–158.

[19] Salavati-Niasari, M., Gholami-Daghian, M., Esmaeili-Zare, M., and Sangsefidi, F.S., 2013, Solid state synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) microflakes by [bis(acetylacetonato)zinc(II)] and sodium hydroxide at room temperature, J. Cluster Sci., 24 (4), 1093–1101.

[20] Galini, M., Salehi, M., Kubicki, M., Bayat, M., and Malekshah, R.E., 2020, Synthesis, structural characterization, DFT and molecular simulation study of new zinc-Schiff base complex and its application as a precursor for preparation of ZnO nanoparticle, J. Mol. Struct., 1207, 127715.

[21] Shahraki, S., and Heydari, A., 2017, New zinc(II) N4 tetradentate Schiff base complex: A potential cytotoxic metallodrug and simple precursor for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles, Colloids Surf., B, 160, 564–571.

[22] Ortegón-Reyna, D., Garcías-Morales, C., Padilla-Martínez, I., García-Báez, E., Aríza-Castolo, A., Peraza-Campos, A., and Martínez-Martínez, F., 2013, NMR structural study of the prototropic equilibrium in solution of Schiff bases as model compounds, Molecules, 19 (1), 459–481.

[23] Vaz, P.A.A.M., Rocha, J., Silva, A.M.S., and Guieu, S., 2018, Aggregation-induced emission enhancement of chiral boranils, New J. Chem., 42 (22), 18166–18171.

[24] Alothman, A.A., and Albaqami, M.D., 2020, Nano‐sized Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes and their use as a precursor for synthesis of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: A study on their sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and DNA‐binding/cleavage, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, Appl. Organomet. Chem., 34 (10), e5827.

[25] Silverstein, R.M., and Bassler, G.C., 1962, Spectrometric identification of organic compounds, J. Chem. Educ., 39 (11), 546.

[26] Bader, A.T., Al-qasii, N.A.R., Shntaif, A.H., El Marouani, M., AL Majidi, M.I.H., Trif, L., and Boulhaoua, M., 2022, Synthesis, structural analysis and thermal behavior of new 1,2,4-triazole derivative and its transition metal complexes, Indones. J. Chem., 22 (1), 223–232.

[27] Katouah, H.A., 2021, Facile synthesis of Co3O4 and ZnO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of novel Co(II) and Zn(II) Schiff base complexes for studying their biological properties and photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet dye, J. Mol. Struct., 1241, 130676.

[28] Muthukumaran, S., and Gopalakrishnan, R., 2012, Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Cu doped ZnO nanopowders by co-precipitation method, Opt. Mater., 34 (11), 1946–1953.

[29] Viezbicke, B.D., Patel, S., Davis, B.E., and Birnie III, D.P., 2015, Evaluation of the Tauc method for optical absorption edge determination: ZnO thin films as a model system, Phys. Status Solidi B, 252 (8), 1700–1710.

[30] Talam, S., Karumuri, S.R., and Gunnam, N., 2012, Synthesis, characterization, and spectroscopic properties of ZnO nanoparticles, Int. Scholarly Res. Not., 2012, 372505.

[31] Sales Amalraj, A., Christina Joycee, S., and Natarajan, G., 2022, Investigation of the properties of tungsten doped ZnO thin films synthesised by SILAR method, Mater. Res. Innovations, 26 (5), 263–269.

[32] Doustkhah, E., Esmat, M., Fukata, N., Ide, Y., Hanaor, D.A.H., and Assadi, M.H.N., 2022, MOF-derived nanocrystalline ZnO with controlled orientation and photocatalytic activity, Chemosphere, 303, 134932.

[33] Kinra, S., Ghosh, M.P., Mohanty, S., Choubey, R.K., and Mukherjee, S., 2022, Manganese ions substituted ZnO nanoparticles: Synthesis, microstructural and optical properties, Phys. B, 627, 413523.

[34] Sa’aedi, A., Akl, A.A., and Hassanien, A.S., 2022, Effective role of Rb doping in controlling crystallization, crystal imperfections, microstructural, and morphological features of ZnO-NPs synthesized by sol-gel approach, CrystEngComm, 24 (26), 4661–4678.

[35] Geetha, M.S., Nagabhushana, H., and Shivananjaiah, H.N., 2016, Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent, J. Sci.: Adv. Mater. Devices, 1 (3), 301–310.

[36] Jin, S.E., Hwang, S.J., and Jin, H.E., 2022, Hierarchical tetramodal-porous architecture of zinc oxide nanoparticles microfluidically synthesized via dual-step nanofabrication, Mater. Des., 215, 110486.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3056 | views : 2106

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.