Synthesis and Characterization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxypropanoic Acid (2,4-DP) Herbicide Interleaved into Calcium-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide and the Study of Controlled Release Formulation

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.73546

Farah Liyana Bohari(1), Nur Aishah Mohd Noor(2), Sheikh Ahmad Izaddin Sheikh Mohd Ghazali(3*), Nur Nadia Dzulkifli(4), Is Fatimah(5), Nurain Adam(6)

(1) Material, Inorganic, and Oloechemistry (MaterInoleo) Research Group, School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, 72000, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
(2) Material, Inorganic, and Oloechemistry (MaterInoleo) Research Group, School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, 72000, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
(3) Material, Inorganic, and Oloechemistry (MaterInoleo) Research Group, School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, 72000, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
(4) Material, Inorganic, and Oloechemistry (MaterInoleo) Research Group, School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, 72000, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Kampus Terpadu UII, Jl. Kaliurang Km 14, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia
(6) Kontra Pharma (M) Sdn Bhd (90082-V) Kotra Technology Centre (Block B) 1,2 &3, Industrial Estate, 75250, Jl. Ttc 12, Malacca, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The commonly used herbicide in agriculture, namely 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropanoic acid (2,4-DP), is an anionic herbicide used to interleave into the interlayer of calcium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Ca-Al LDH) employing co-precipitation method to form a new nanohybrid labeled as CAL-2,4DP. The LDH compound serves as a host in supporting the herbicide’s controlled release formulation. The effective interleave was investigated by employing a powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern at 0.025 M nanocomposite, which revealed that the basal spacing has increased from 8.0 Å to 23.8 Å. The ATR-FTIR spectra further supported the interleaving, where the nitrate peak (NO) diminished, and the carboxylate ion (COO) band appeared at 1653 cm−1. The percentage loading of CAL-2,4DP was 71.26%, calculated from the carbon content in the sample. The BET analysis shows that CAL-2,4DP was a mesoporous material relying on nitrogen-desorption isotherms. The release of 2,4-DP ions into the aqueous solutions followed the order of PO43− > CO32− > Cl with a percentage of 83, 65, and 30%, respectively. This work indicates the successful interleaving process of the 2,4-DP anion and the potential of CAL-2,4DP as an eco-friendly agrochemical that can be beneficial for farmers in minimizing herbicide usage to the environment.


Keywords


2,4-dichlorophenoxypropanoic acid (2,4-DP); interleaved; co-precipitation; LDH; nanoparticles; controlled release

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.73546

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