Flocculation Performance of Industrial Sugarcane Juice by Acrylamide-Based Anionic Flocculant


Eva Oktavia Ningrum(1*), Agung Subyakto(2), Wirawan Ciptonugroho(3), Shania Lorensa(4), Devianti Anggraini Ramadhani(5), Agus Surono(6)

(1) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
(2) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
(4) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
(5) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
(6) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Despite the widespread use of ionic polymer flocculants in sugar refineries, there is still insufficient knowledge on the relationship between the polymer properties and the efficiency of flocculation. This paper describes the performance of poly(sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide) (poly(SA-co-AAm)) as an anionic flocculant in the flocculation–coagulation of sugarcane juice from the sugar factory Gempolkrep PTPN X Mojokerto. Poly(SA-co-AAm) was successfully prepared via free radical polymerization of sodium acrylate and acrylamide with respective molar ratios of 40:60, 50:50, and 60:40, and compared with the commercial flocculant Accofloc. It was found that the mud height of the sugarcane decreased with increasing SA:AAm ratio. However, mud height increase was observed with further increasing SA:AAm ratio. Furthermore, increasing the flocculant dosage did not induce any significant change in the mud height and pH. The total dissolved solids (TDS) significantly decreased when the ratio of sodium acrylate:acrylamide was changed from 40:60 to 50:50, whereas a further change to 60:40 increased the TDS value again. It is also noticed that the tendency of turbidity is consistent with the TDS value. These results demonstrate that poly(SA-co-AAm) is a feasible alternative to the commercial flocculant owing to its good flocculation–coagulation performance with an optimum SA:AAm ratio of 50:50.


flocculation; flocculant; polymers; sugarcane

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Nandhini, T.S.K.D., and Padmavathy, V., 2017, A study on sugarcane production in India, Int. J. Adv. Res. Bot., 3 (2), 13–17.

[2] Reuters, 2017, Indonesia Raw Sugar Consumption for Food, Beverages Seen Edging up in 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/indonesia-sugar-idUSJ9N1I400Q, accessed on February 10, 2022.

[3] Sulaiman, A.A., Sulaeman, Y., Mustikasari, N., Nursyamsi, D., and Syakir, A.M., 2019, Increasing sugar production in Indonesia through land suitability analysis and sugar mill restructuring, Land, 8 (4), 61.

[4] Xiao, Z., Liao, X., and Guo, S., 2017, Analysis of sugarcane juice quality indexes, J. Food Qual., 2017, 1746982.

[5] de Mello, M.L., Barros, N.Z., Sperança, M.A., and Pereira, F.M.V., 2022, Impurities in raw sugarcane before and after biorefinery processing, Food Anal. Methods, 15 (1), 96–103.

[6] Meng, Y., Yu, S., Qiu, Z., Zhang, J., Wu, J., Yao, T., and Qin, J., 2021, Modeling and optimization of sugarcane juice clarification process, J. Food Eng., 291, 110223.

[7] Umesh Kumar, P.K., and Chand, K., 2015, Application of response surface method as an experimental design to optimize clarification process parameters for sugarcane juice, J. Food Process. Technol., 6 (2), 1000422.

[8] Shi, C., Rackemann, D.W., Moghaddam, L., Wei, B., Li, K., Lu, H., Xie, C., Hang, F., and Doherty, W.O.S., 2019, Ceramic membrane filtration of factory sugarcane juice: Effect of pretreatment on permeate flux, juice quality and fouling, J. Food Eng., 243, 101–113.

[9] Dao, V.H., Mohanarangam, K., Fawell, P.D., Simic, K., Iyer, R., Cameron, N.R., and Saito, K., 2020, Enhanced flocculation efficiency in a high-ionic-strength environment by the aid of anionic ABA triblock copolymers, Langmuir, 36 (6), 1538–1551.

[10] Deniz, V., 2015, Dewatering of barite clay wastewater by inorganic coagulants and co-polymer flocculants, Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process., 51 (1), 351–364.

[11] Doherty, W.O.S., Fellows, C.M., Gorjian, S., Senogles, E., and Cheung, W.H., 2003, Flocculation and sedimentation of cane sugar juice particles with cationic homo- and copolymers, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 90 (1), 316–325.

[12] Bakir, H., Denman, J.A., and Doherty, W.O.S., 2020, Slow settling behaviour of soil nano-particles in water and synthetic sugarcane juice solutions, J. Food Eng., 279, 109978.

[13] Guan, G., Gao, T., Wang, X., and Lou, T., 2021, A cost-effective anionic flocculant prepared by grafting carboxymethyl cellulose and lignosulfonate with acrylamide, Cellulose, 28 (17), 11013–11023.

[14] Rabiee, A., 2010, Acrylamide-based anionic polyelectrolytes and their applications: A survey, J. Vinyl Addit. Technol., 16 (2), 111–119.

[15] Zheng, H., Ma, J., Ji, F., Tang, X., Chen, W., Zhu, J., Liao, Y., and Tan, M., 2013, Synthesis and application of anionic polyacrylamide in water treatment: A review, Asian J. Chem., 25 (13), 7071–7074.

[16] Ma, J., Zheng, H., Tan, M., Liu, L., Chen, W., Guan, Q., and Zheng, X., 2013, Synthesis, characterization, and flocculation performance of anionic polyacrylamide P (AM-AA-AMPS), J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 129 (4), 1984–1991.

[17] Feng, L., Zheng, H., Gao, B., Zhang, S., Zhao, C., Zhou, Y., and Xu, B., 2017, Fabricating an anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) with an anionic block structure for high turbidity water separation and purification, RSC Adv., 7 (46), 28918–28930.

[18] Zheng, H., Ma, J., Zhu, C., Zhang, Z., Liu, L., Sun, Y., and Tang, X., 2014, Synthesis of anion polyacrylamide under UV initiation and its application in removing dioctyl phthalate from water through flocculation process, Sep. Purif. Technol., 123, 35–44.

[19] Mohammed, H., Solomon, W.K., and Bultosa, G., 2016, Optimization of phosphate and anionic polyacrylamide flocculant (APF) level for sugar cane juice clarification using central composite design, J. Food Process. Preserv., 40 (1), 67–75.

[20] Khalil, M.I., and Aly, A.A., 2002, Preparation and evaluation of some anionic starch derivatives as flocculants, StarchStärke, 54 (3‐4), 132–139.

[21] Shen, C.C., Petit, S., Li, C.J., Li, C.S., Khatoon, N., and Zhou, C.H., 2020, Interactions between smectites and polyelectrolytes, Appl. Clay Sci., 198, 105778.

[22] Rabiee, A., Ershad-Langroudi, A., and Zeynali, M.E., 2015, A survey on cationic polyelectrolytes and their applications: Acrylamide derivatives, Rev. Chem. Eng., 31 (3), 239–261.

[23] Thai, C.C.D., Bakir, H., and Doherty, W.O.S., 2012, Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash, J. Agric. Food Chem., 60 (11), 2916–2923.

[24] Pal, P., Pandey, J.P., and Sen, G., 2018, Grafted sesbania gum: A novel derivative for sugarcane juice clarification, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 114, 349–356.

[25] Thai, C.C.D., and Doherty, W.O.S., 2013, Effect of Trash on the Coagulation and Flocculation of Sugarcane Juice, Australia, Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, April 16-18, 2013.

[26] Magalhães, A.S.G., Almeida Neto, M.P., Bezerra, M.N., Ricardo, N.M.P.S., and Feitosa, J.P.A., 2012, Application of FTIR in the determination of acrylate content in poly(sodium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogels, Quim. Nova, 35 (7), 1464–1467.

[27] Mansri, A., Bendraoua, A., Benmoussa, A., and Benhabib, K., 2015, New polyacrylamide [PAM] material formulations for the coagulation/flocculation/decantation process, J. Polym. Environ., 23 (4), 580–587.

[28] Craciun, G., Ighigeanu, D., Manaila, E., and Stelescu, M.D., 2015, Synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) flocculant obtained by electron beam irradiation, Mater. Res., 18 (5), 984–993.

[29] Mishra, A., Agarwal, M., and Yadav, A., 2003, Fenugreek mucilage as a flocculating agent for sewage treatment, Colloid Polym. Sci., 281 (2), 164–167.

[30] Chan, W.C., and Chiang, C.Y., 1995, Flocculation of clay suspensions with water-insoluble starch grafting acrylamide/sodium allylsulfonated copolymer powder, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 58 (10), 1721–1726.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.73150

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1088 | views : 543

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.