Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Nano-Crystal Cellulose of Oil Palm Trunk: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Mega Mustikaningrum(1*), Rochim Bakti Cahyono(2), Ahmad Tawfiequrrahman Yuliansyah(3)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Muhammadiyah Gresik, Jl. Sumatera No.101, Gresik 61121, East Java, Indonesia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The adsorption kinetic study of methylene blue using nano-crystal cellulose made from oil palm trunk was investigated. A sample of 0.08 g of nano-crystal cellulose was used to adsorb 300 mL of methylene blue solution, with a varied stirring speed at 100, 200, and 300 rpm. Meanwhile, the concentration of methylene blue was varied at 1, 2, and 3 mg/L. The experimental results showed that the range of adsorption rate constant was 0.0007–0.0130 m/min. For the thermodynamic study, adsorption temperature was varied at 303, 308, 313, and 318 K. The adsorption capacity values for such temperatures were 10.3389, 10.3802, 10.3614, and 10.3464 mg/g, respectively. It was found that ΔH° value of 0.00742 kJ/mol, ΔS° of 0.7758 kJ/mol K and ΔG° value of −242.81 kJ/mol. Based on the curve-fitting using the Henry, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm models, this adsorption tended to the Langmuir isotherm model, where the adsorption formed a monolayer covering the surface of the adsorbent. It was also found that the Langmuir affinity constant (KL) value was 4.560 L/mg, and the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) was 8.590 mg/g.


nano-crystal cellulose; methylene blue; adsorption; oil palm trunk

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Kemenperin, 2018, Kebijakan Sektor Industri Kimia dan Tekstil dalam Rangka Implementasi Roadmap Industri 4.0, Indonesia Industrial Summit 2018: Implementasi Industri 4.0 dalam rangka Transformasi Lanskap Industri Nasional menuju Top 10 Ekonomi Dunia 2030, Ministry of Industry of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

[2] Badan Pusat Statistik, 2021, Statistik Indonesia Tahun 2010, Statistics Indonesia (BPS), Jakarta, Indonesia.

[3] Shanmugarajah, B., Chew, I.M.L., Mubarak, N.M., Choong, T.S.Y., Yoo, C.K., and Tan, K.W., 2019, Valorization of palm oil agro-waste into cellulose biosorbents for highly effective textile effluent remediation, J. Cleaner Prod., 210, 697–709.

[4] Umoren, S.A., Etim, U.J., and Israel, A.U., 2013, Adsorption of methylene blue from industrial effluent using poly (vinyl alcohol), J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 4 (1), 75–86.

[5] Rafatullah, M., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., and Ahmad, A., 2010, Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: A review, J. Hazard. Mater., 177 (1-3), 70–80.

[6] Lellis, B., Fávaro-Polonio, C.Z., Pamphile, J.A., and Polonio, J.C., 2019, Effects of textile dyes on health and the environment and bioremediation potential of living organisms, Biotechnol. Res. Innovation, 3 (2), 275–290.

[7] Hassaan, M.A., and El Nemr, A., 2017, Health and environmental impacts of dyes: Mini review, Am. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 1 (3), 64–67.

[8] Ismail, M., Akhtar, K., Khan, M.I., Kamal, T., Khan, M.A., Asiri, M.A., Seo, J., and Khan, S.B., 2019, Pollution toxicity and carcinogenicity of organic dyes and their catalytic bio-remediation, Curr. Pharm. Des., 25 (34), 3653–3671.

[9] Jadhav, A.C., and Jadhav, N.C., 2021, “Treatment of textile wastewater using adsorption and adsorbents” in Sustainable Technologies for Textile Wastewater Treatments, Eds. Muthu, S.S., Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 235–273.

[10] Katheresan, V., Kansedo, J., and Lau, S.Y., 2018, Efficiency of various recent wastewater dye removal methods: A review, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6 (4), 4676–4697.

[11] Brião, G.V., Jahn, S.L., Foletto, E.L., and Dotto, G.L., 2017, Adsorption of crystal violet dye onto a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthetized using chitin as template, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 508, 313–322.

[12] Ince, M., and Ince, O.K., 2017, An overview of adsorption technique for heavy metal removal from water/wastewater: A critical review, Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol., 3, 10–19.

[13] An, V.N., Van, T.T.T., Nhan, C.H.T., and Heu, V.L., 2020, Investigating methylene blue adsorption and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/CNC nanohybrids, J. Nanomaterials., 2020, 6185876.

[14] Ibrahim, I., Al-Obaidi, Y.M., and Hussin, S.M., 2015, Removal of methylene blue using cellulose nanocrystal synthesized from cotton by ultrasonic technique, Chem. Sci. Int. J., 9 (3), 1–7.

[15] Oyewo, O.A., Adeniyi, A., Sithole, B.B., and Onyango, M.S., 2020, Sawdust-based cellulose nano-crystals incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles as efficient adsorption media in the removal of methylene blue dye, ACS Omega, 5 (30), 18798–18807.

[16] Safavi-Mirmahalleh, S.A., Salami-Kalajahi, M., and Roghani-Mamaqani, H., 2019, Effect of surface chemistry and content of nanocrystalline cellulose on removal of methylene blue from wastewater by poly(acrylic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose nanocomposite hydrogels, Cellulose, 26 (9), 5603–5619.

[17] Liang, L., Zhang, S., Goenaga, G.A., Meng, X., Zawodzinksi, T.A., and Ragauskas, A.J., 2020, Chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystal aerogels for effective removal of cation dye, Front. Chem., 8, 570.

[18] Susanto, I., 2013, Batang Sawit Bernilai Tinggi,, accessed on 29 September 2019.

[19] Holman, J., 1981, Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill International Book Co. Inc., New York, US.

[20] Mustikaningrum, M., Cahyono, R.B., and Yuliansyah, A.T., 2021, Effect of NaOH concentration in alkaline treatment process for producing nano crystal cellulose-based biosorbent for methylene blue, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 1053, 012005.

[21] Miranda, F.F., Putri, A.S., Mustikaningrum, M., and Yuliansyah, A.T., 2021, Preparation and characterization of nano crystal cellulose from oil palm trunk for adsorption of methylene blue, AIP Conf. Proc., 2338, 040008.

[22] Ayawei, N., Ebelegi, A.N., and Wankasi, D., 2017, Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms, J. Chem., 2017, 3039817.

[23] Saadi, R., Saadi, Z., Fazaeli, R., and Fard, N.E., 2015, Monolayer and multilayer adsorption isotherm models for sorption from aqueous media, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 32 (5), 787–799.

[24] Smith, J.M., Van Ness, H.C., and Abbott, M.M., 2001, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed., McGraw Hill International Book Co. Inc., New York, US.

[25] Mustikaningrum, M., 2021, Peningkatan fungsi limbah batang kelapa sawit untuk biosorben sebagai dye removal dengan variasi konsentrasi NaOH pada ektraksi dan waktu sonikasi, Thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

[26] Darmadi, D., Choong, T.S.Y., Chuah, T.G., Yunus, R., and Taufik Yap, Y.H., 2008, Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions on carbon coated monolith, AJChE, 8 (1), 27–38.

[27] Fil, B.A., and Ozmetin, C., 2012, Adsorption of cationic dye from aqueous solution by clay as an adsorbent: Thermodynamic and kinetic studies, J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 34 (4), 896–906.

[28] Yousef, R.I., El-Eswed, B., and Al-Muhtaseb, A.H., 2011, Adsorption characteristics of natural zeolites as solid adsorbents for phenol removal from aqueous solutions: Kinetics, mechanism, and thermodynamics studies, Chem. Eng. J., 171 (3), 1143–1149.

[29] Altaher, H., Khalil, T.E., and Abubeah, R., 2014, The effect of dye chemical structure on adsorption on activated carbon: A comparative study, Color. Technol., 130 (3), 205–214.

[30] Müller, B.R., 2010, Effect of particle size and surface area on the adsorption of albumin-bonded bilirubin on activated carbon, Carbon, 48 (12), 3607–3615.

[31] Krishna, R.A., 1993, A unified approach to the modelling intraparticle diffusion in adsorption processes, Gas Sep. Purif., 7 (2), 91–104.

[32] Banerjee, S., and Chattopadhyaya, M.C., 2017, Adsorption characteristics for the removal of a toxic dye, tartrazine from aqueous solutions by a low cost agricultural by-product, Arabian J. Chem., 10, S1629–S1638.

[33] Jain, N., Dwivedi, M.K., and Waskle, A., 2016, Adsorption of methylene blue dye from industrial effluents using coal fly ash, Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Sci., 3 (4), 9–16.

[34] Geng, Y., Zhang, J., Zhou, J., and Lei J., 2018, Study on adsorption of methylene blue by a novel composite material of TiO2 and alum sludge, RSC Adv., 8 (57), 32799–32807.

[35] Banerjee, S., Chattopadhyaya, M.C., Uma, U., and Sharma, Y.C., 2014, Adsorption characteristics of modified wheat husk for the removal of a toxic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solutions, J. Hazard., Toxic Radioact. Waste, 18 (1), 56–63.

[36] Pathania, D., Sharma, S., and Singh, P., 2017, Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast, Arabian J. Chem., 10, S1445–S1451.

[37] Al-Ghouti, A.M., and Al-Absi, R.M., 2020, Mechanistic understanding of the adsorption and thermodynamic aspects of cationic methylene blue dye onto cellulosic olive stones biomass from wastewater, Sci. Rep., 10 (1), 15928.

[38] Hameed, B.H., Krishni, R.R., and Sata, S.A., 2009, A novel agricultural waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solutions, J. Hazard. Mater., 162 (1), 305–311.

[39] Khuluk, R.H., Rahmat, A., Buhani, B., and Suharso, S., 2019, Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon from coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L.), IJoST, 4 (2), 229–240.

[40] Wang, J., and Guo, X., 2020, Adsorption isotherm models: Classification, physical meaning, application and solving method, Chemosphere., 258, 127279.

[41] Hasan, R., Ying, W.J., Cheng, C.C., Jaafar, N.F., Jusoh, R., Jalil, A.A., and Setiabudi, H.D., 2020, Methylene blue adsorption onto cockle shells-treated banana pith: Optimization, isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies, Indones. J. Chem., 20 (2), 368–378.

[42] Mohammed, N., Grishkewich, N., Waeijen, H.A., Berry, R.M., and Tam, K.C., 2016, Continuous flow adsorption od methylene blue by cellulose nanocrystal-alginate hydrogel beads in fixed bed columns, Carbohydr. Polym., 136, 1194–1202.

[43] Batmaz, R., Mohammed, N., Zaman, M., Minhas, G., Berry, R.M., and Tam, K.C., 2014, Cellulose nano-crystals as promising adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes, Cellulose, 21 (3), 1655–1665.

[44] Hu, X.S., Liang, R., and Sun, G., 2018, Super-adsorbent hydrogel for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution, J. Mater. Chem. A., 6 (36), 17612–17624.

[45] Tan, K.B., Reza, A.K., Abdullah, A.Z., Horri, B.A., and Salamatinia, B., 2018, Development of self-assembled nanocrystalline cellulose as a promising practical adsorbent for methylene blue removal, Carbohydr. Polym., 199, 92–101.

[46] Tang, Y., Yang, M., Dong, W., Tan, L., Zhang, X., Zhao, P., Peng, C., and Wang, G., 2015, Temperature difference effect induced self-assembly method for Ag/SBA-15 nanostructures and their catalytic properties for epoxidation of styrene, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 215, 199–205.

[47] Lesbani, A., Palapa, N.R., Sayeri, R.J., Taher, T., and Hidayati, N., 2021, High reusability of NiAl LDH/biochar composite in the removal methylene blue from aqueous solution, Indones. J. Chem., 21 (2), 421–434.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2383 | views : 1604

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.