Colorimetric Chemosensor for Sulfide Anion Detection Based on Symmetrical Nitrovanillin Azine

Diana Lestari(1), Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih(2), Bambang Purwono(3*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The nitrovanillin azine (NA) has been successfully synthesized and examined as a colorimetric chemosensor for sulfide anion detection. The NA was synthesized using two steps reaction. Vanillin was reacted with concentrated nitric acid to form 5-nitrovanillin (NV) then the NV was condensed with hydrazine hydrate to produce the NA. The NA was obtained and fully elucidated by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectrometer. The NA activity for anionic chemosensor was then carried out on several anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, Br⁻, I⁻, S2⁻, CN⁻, HCO3⁻, AcO⁻, H2PO4⁻, N3⁻, NO2⁻, SCN⁻, ClO3⁻, and NO3⁻. The chemosensor tests showed NA was only selective for S2− in DMF:HEPES buffer (9:1, v/v, 10 mM, pH = 7.4) giving color change from light yellow to dark green. The LOD value was 1.43 × 10−5 M and the interaction model of NA-S2− indicated deprotonation mode between the -OH group with sulfide anion in a ratio of 1:1. The NA chemosensor can be applied for qualitatively analysis of sulfide anion using filter paper strips and quantitatively analysis of sulfide anion in tap water.


5-nitrovanillin; hydrazine; azine; colorimetric; chemosensor

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