A Review on Green Synthesis, Antimicrobial Applications and Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Plant Extract


Subakir Salnus(1), Wahid Wahab(2), Rugaiyah Arfah(3), Firdaus Zenta(4), Hasnah Natsir(5), Muriyati Muriyati(6), Fatimah Fatimah(7), Arini Rajab(8), Zulfian Armah(9), Rizal Irfandi(10*)

(1) Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Panrita Husada Bulukumba, Jl. Panggala, Bulukumba 92561, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km 10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(6) Department of Nursing, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Panrita Husada Bulukumba, Indonesia
(7) Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Panrita Husada Bulukumba, Jl. Panggala, Bulukumba 92561, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(8) Department of Environmental Management, Samarinda State Agricultural Polytechnic, Samarinda 75242, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
(9) Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Makassar, Indonesia
(10) Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Puangrimaggalatung, Sengkang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Nanotechnology explores nanoscale materials that can be used in a wide range of industries such as biotechnology, cosmetics, drug delivery, nanomedicine, and biosensors. Nanoparticles in diverse shapes and sizes can be prepared through physical, chemical, and biological methods. The employment of reducing agents, which will change their form, size range, level of stability, and interaction, is a crucial part thus employing a biological approach is necessary. Chemically generated metal oxide nanoparticles raise considerable issues owing to the usage of hazardous and poisonous chemicals, as well as the potential for conservational impairment. In contrast, the production of silver nanoparticles using the principal method of green synthesis has found a special place in research that is considered more environmentally approachable requiring the use to produce non-toxic nanomaterials. Plants and polymer materials have received a lot of interest in the preparation of nanoparticles since they are renewable and affordable. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of more ecologically friendly synthesis techniques that use plant extracts to make silver nanoparticles and their application as antibacterial agents, as well as toxicity features based on the shape, size range, and phytochemical mechanism of plants.


silver nanoparticles; green synthesis; biological method; size range; phytochemical mechanism

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Tom, A.P., 2021, Nanotechnology for sustainable water treatment – A review, Mater. Today: Proc., In Press, Corrected Proof.

[2] Hurst, G.A., 2020, Systems thinking approaches for international green chemistry education, Curr. Opin. Green Sustainable Chem., 21, 93–97.

[3] Menges, N., 2018, "The Role of Green Solvents and Catalysts at the Future of Drug Design and of Synthesis" in Green Chemistry, Eds. Saleh, H.E.D.M., and Koller, M., IntechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia, 75–100.

[4] Chen, T.L., Kim, H., Pan, S.Y., Tseng, P.C., Lin, Y.P., and Chiang, P.C., 2020, Implementation of green chemistry principles in circular economy system towards sustainable development goals: Challenges and perspectives, Sci. Total Environ., 716, 136998.

[5] Bayda, S., Adeel, M., Tuccinardi, T., Cordani, M., and Rizzolio, F., 2019, The history of nanoscience and nanotechnology: From chemical–physical applications to nanomedicine, Molecules, 25 (1), 112.

[6] Anselmo, A.C., and Mitragotri, S., 2019, Nanoparticles in the clinic: An update, Bioeng. Transl. Med., 4 (3), e10143.

[7] Zhu, S., Meng, H., Gu, Z., and Zhao, Y., 2021, Research trend of nanoscience and nanotechnology – A bibliometric analysis of Nano Today, Nano Today, 39, 101233.

[8] Pandya, H.N., Parikh, S.P., and Shah, M., 2019, Comprehensive review on application of various nanoparticles for the production of biodiesel, Energy Sources, Part A, 44 (1), 1945–1958.

[9] Ikumapayi, O.M., Akinlabi, E.T., Adeoye, A.O.M., and Fatoba, S.O., 2021, Microfabrication and nanotechnology in manufacturing system – An overview, Mater. Today: Proc., 44, 1154–1162.

[10] Manikanika, Kumar, J., and Jaswal, S., 2021, Role of nanotechnology in the world of cosmetology: A review, Mater. Today: Proc., 45, 3302–3306.

[11] Dey, A., Pandey, G., and Rawtani, D., 2022, Functionalized nanomaterials driven antimicrobial food packaging: A technological advancement in food science, Food Control, 131, 108469.

[12] Dani, R., Singh Rawal, Y., Murdia, M., and Bagchi, P., 2021, A review on applications of nanomaterials in hotel industry: Prospects for food processing, packaging, and safety, Mater. Today: Proc., 46, 11247–11249.

[13] Xavier, M., Parente, I.A., Rodrigues, P.M., Cerqueira, M.A., Pastrana, L., and Gonçalves, C., 2021, Safety and fate of nanomaterials in food: The role of in vitro tests, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 109, 593–607.

[14] Tiwari, K., Singh, R., Negi, P., Dani, R., and Rawat, A., 2021, Application of nanomaterials in food packaging industry: A review, Mater. Today: Proc., 46, 10652–10655.

[15] Chaudhry, N., Dwivedi, S., Chaudhry, V., Singh, A., Saquib, Q., Azam, A., and Musarrat, J., 2018, Bio-inspired nanomaterials in agriculture and food: Current status, foreseen applications and challenges, Microb. Pathogen., 123, 196–200.

[16] Zhai, R., Chen, G., Liu, G., Huang, X., Xu, X., Li, L., Zhang, Y., Wang, J., Jin, M., Xu, D., and Abd El-Aty, A.M., 2021, Enzyme inhibition methods based on Au nanomaterials for rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural and environmental samples: A review, J. Adv. Res., 37, 61–74.

[17] Mitchell, M.J., Billingsley, M.M., Haley, R.M., Wechsler, M.E., Peppas, N.A., and Langer, R., 2021, Engineering precision nanoparticles for drug delivery, Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery, 20 (2), 101–124.

[18] Lu, J., Chen, Z., Ma, Z., Pan, F., Curtiss, L.A., and Amine, K., 2016, The role of nanotechnology in the development of battery materials for electric vehicles, Nat. Nanotechnol., 11 (12), 1031–1038.

[19] Gao, P., Huang, X., Cen, D., and Bao, Z., 2019, Constructing flexible coaxial-cable structured sulfur cathode with carbon nanomaterials on textile, Carbon, 144, 525–531.

[20] Taran, N., Storozhenko, V., Svietlova, N., Batsmanova, L., Shvartau, V., and Kovalenko, M., 2017, Effect of zinc and copper nanoparticles on drought resistance of wheat seedlings, Nanoscale Res. Lett., 12 (1), 60.

[21] Chouhan, N., 2018, "Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications" in Silver Nanoparticles - Fabrication, Characterization and Applications, Eds. Khan, M., IntechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia, 21–57.

[22] Zuin, V.G., Stahl, A.M., Zanotti, K., and Segatto, M.L., 2020, Green and sustainable chemistry in Latin America: Which type of research is going on? And for what?, Curr. Opin. Green Sustainable Chem., 25, 100379.

[23] Mondal, P., Anweshan, A., and Purkait, M.K., 2020, Green synthesis and environmental application of iron-based nanomaterials and nanocomposite: A review, Chemosphere, 259, 127509.

[24] Singh, J., Dutta, T., Kim, K.H., Rawat, M., Samddar, P., and Kumar, P., 2018, 'Green' synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: Applications for environmental remediation, J. Nanobiotechnol., 16 (1), 84.

[25] Makvandi, P., Wang, C., Zare, E.N., Borzacchiello, A., Niu, L., and Tay, F.R., 2020, Metal‐based nanomaterials in biomedical applications: Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity aspects, Adv. Funct. Mater., 30 (22), 1910021.

[26] El-Sherbiny, I.M., and Salih, E., 2018, "Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles Using Biopolymers and Plant Extracts" in Green Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and their Applications, Eds. Kachi, S., and Ahmed, S., Scrivener Publishing LLC, Beverly, Massachusetts, USA, 293–319.

[27] Al-khattaf, F.S., 2021, Gold and silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis, microbes, mechanism, factors, plant disease management and environmental risks, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 28 (6), 3624–3631.

[28] Alabdallah, N.M., and Hasan, M.M., 2021, Plant-based green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effective role in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 28 (10), 5631–5639.

[29] Zhang, D., Ma, X., Gu, Y., Huang, H., and Zhang, G., 2020, Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications to treat cancer, Front. Chem., 8, 799.

[30] Roy, A., Bulut, O., Some, S., Mandal, A.K., and Yilmaz, M.D., 2019, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Biomolecule-nanoparticle organizations targeting antimicrobial activity, RSC Adv., 9 (5), 2673–2702.

[31] Gour, A., and Jain, N.K., 2019, Advances in green synthesis of nanoparticles, Artif. Cells, Nanomed., Biotechnol., 47 (1), 844–851.

[32] Naikoo, G.A., Mustaqeem, M., Hassan, I.U., Awan, T., Arshad, F., Salim, H., and Qurashi, A., 2021, Bioinspired and green synthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts with antiviral and antimicrobial properties: A critical review, J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 25 (9), 101304.

[33] Nguyen, D.H., Lee, J.S., Park, K.D., Ching, Y.C., Nguyen, X.T., Phan, V.H.G., and Hoang Thi, T.T., 2020, Green silver nanoparticles formed by Phyllanthus urinaria, Pouzolzia zeylanica, and Scoparia dulcis leaf extracts and the antifungal activity, Nanomaterials, 10 (3), 542.

[34] Jaswal, T., and Gupta, J., 2021, A review on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on human health, Mater. Today: Proc., In Press, Corrected Proof.

[35] Akter, M., Sikder, M.T., Rahman, M.M., Atique Ullah, A.K.M., Hossain, K.F.B., Banik, S., Hosokawa, T., Saito, T., and Kurasaki, M., 2018, A systematic review on silver nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity: Physicochemical properties and perspectives, J. Adv. Res., 9, 1–16.

[36] Rana, A., Yadav, K., and Jagadevan, S., 2020, A comprehensive review on green synthesis of nature-inspired metal nanoparticles: Mechanism, application and toxicity, J. Cleaner Prod., 272, 122880.

[37] Wang, L., Wu, Y., Xie, J., Wu, S., and Wu, Z., 2018, Characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Psidium guajava L. leaf aqueous extracts, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 86, 1–8.

[38] Maharjan, S., Liao, K.S., Wang, A.J., Zhu, Z., McElhenny, B.P., Bao, J., and Curran, S.A., 2020, Sol-gel synthesis of stabilized silver nanoparticles in an organosiloxane matrix and its optical nonlinearity, Chem. Phys., 532, 110610.

[39] Abirami, R., Senthil, T.S., Kalpana, S., Kungumadevi, L., and Kang, M., 2020, Hydrothermal synthesis of pure PbTiO3 and silver doped PbTiO3 perovskite nanoparticles for enhanced photocatalytic activity, Mater. Lett., 279, 128507.

[40] Abdoon, F.M., and Atawy, H.M., 2021, Prospective of microwave-assisted and hydrothermal synthesis of carbon quantum dots/silver nanoparticles for spectrophotometric determination of losartan potassium in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations, Mater. Today: Proc., 42, 2141–2149.

[41] Sun, X., Qiang, Q., Yin, Z., Wang, Z., Ma, Y., and Zhao, C., 2019, Monodispersed silver-palladium nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation reaction achieved by controllable electrochemical synthesis from ionic liquid microemulsions, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 557, 450–457.

[42] Sedyakina, N.E., Feldman, N.B., Gudkova, O.I., Rozofarov, A.L., Kuryakov, V.N., and Lutsenko, S.V., 2021, Impact of silver nanoparticles synthesized by green method and microemulsion loaded with the nanoparticles on the development of cress, Mendeleev Commun., 31 (3), 312–314.

[43] Alula, M.T., Lemmens, P., Bo, L., Wulferding, D., Yang, J., and Spende, H., 2019, Preparation of silver nanoparticles coated ZnO/Fe3O4 composites using chemical reduction method for sensitive detection of uric acid via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1073, 62–71.

[44] Lokman, M.Q., Rusdi, M.F.M., Rosol, A.H.A., Ahmad, F., Shafie, S., Yahaya, H., Rosnan, R.M., Rahman, M.A.A., and Harun, S.W., 2021, Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chemical reduction techniques for Q-switcher at 1.5 µm region, Optik, 244, 167621.

[45] Sutapa, I.W., Wahab, A.W., Taba, P., and La Nafie, N., 2018, Synthesis and structural profile analysis of the mgo nanoparticles produced through the sol-gel method followed by annealing process, Orient. J. Chem., 34 (2), 1016–1025.

[46] Lee, Y.J., and Park, Y., 2020, Graphene oxide grafted gold nanoparticles and silver/silver chloride nanoparticles green-synthesized by a Portulaca oleracea extract: Assessment of catalytic activity, Colloids Surf., A, 607, 125527.

[47] Nielsen, M.B., Vavra, J., Palmqvist, A., and Forbes, V.E., 2022, Long-term effects of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate on the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta, Aquat. Toxicol., 242, 106046.

[48] Kulbakov, A.A., Kuriganova, A.B., Allix, M., Rakhmatullin, A., Smirnova, N., Maslova, O.A., and Leontyev, I.N., 2018, Non-isothermal decomposition of platinum acetylacetonate as a cost-efficient and size-controlled synthesis of Pt/C nanoparticles, Catal. Commun., 117, 14–18.

[49] Beisl, S., Monteiro, S., Santos, R., Figueiredo, A.S., Sánchez-Loredo, M.G., Lemos, M.A., Lemos, F., Minhalma, M., and de Pinho, M.N., 2019, Synthesis and bactericide activity of nanofiltration composite membranes – Cellulose acetate/silver nanoparticles and cellulose acetate/silver ion exchanged zeolites, Water Res., 149, 225–231.

[50] Olfati, A., Kahrizi, D., Balaky, S.T.J., Sharifi, R., Tahir, M.B., and Darvishi, E., 2021, Green synthesis of nanoparticles using Calendula officinalis extract from silver sulfate and their antibacterial effects on Pectobacterium caratovorum, Inorg. Chem. Commun., 125, 108439.

[51] Le Trong, H., Kiryukhina, K., Gougeon, M., Baco-Carles, V., Courtade, F., Dareys, S., and Tailhades, P., 2017, Paramagnetic behaviour of silver nanoparticles generated by decomposition of silver oxalate, Solid State Sci., 69, 44–49.

[52] Lim, J.K., Liu, T., Jeong, J., Shin, H., Jang, H.J., Cho, S.P., and Park, J.S., 2020, In situ syntheses of silver nanoparticles inside silver citrate nanorods via catalytic nanoconfinement effect, Colloids Surf., A, 605, 125343.

[53] Hoyos-Palacio, L.M., Cuesta Castro, D.P., Ortiz-Trujillo, I.C., Botero Palacio, L.E., Galeano Upegui, B.J., Escobar Mora, N.J., and Carlos Cornelio, J.A., 2019, Compounds of carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles via in-situ by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), J. Mater. Res. Technol., 8 (6), 5893–5898.

[54] Katouah, H., and El-Metwaly, N.M., 2021, Plasma treatment toward electrically conductive and superhydrophobic cotton fibers by in situ preparation of polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles, React. Funct. Polym., 159, 104810.

[55] Mao, S., Ning, S., Zhang, X., Xia, M., and Wang, F., 2021, The enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultrasonic spray reduction of silver nanoclusters over lamellar graphite carbon nitride: Interface reaction, theoretical calculation and degradation pathway, Adv. Powder Technol., 32 (5), 1641–1652.

[56] Hamida, R.S., Ali, M.A., Redhwan, A.M.O., and Bin-Meferij, M.M., 2020, Cyanobacteria – A promising platform in green nanotechnology: A review on nanoparticles fabrication and their prospective applications, Int. J. Nanomed., 15, 6033–6066.

[57] Vishwanath, R., and Negi, B., 2021, Conventional and green methods of synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties, Curr. Res. Green Sustainable Chem., 4, 100205.

[58] Ilyas, M., Waris, A., Khan, A.U., Zamel, D., Yar, L., Baset, A., Muhaymin, A., Khan, S., Ali, A., and Ahmad, A., 2021, Biological synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from plants and microorganisms and their potential biomedical applications, Inorg. Chem. Commun., 133, 108968.

[59] Zhou, L.H., Wei, X.C., Ma, Z.J., and Mei, B., 2017, Anti-friction performance of FeS nanoparticle synthesized by biological method, Appl. Surf. Sci., 407, 21–28.

[60] Jane Cypriyana, P.J., Saigeetha, S., Angalene, J.L.A., Samrot, A.V., Kumar, S.S., Ponniah, P., and Chakravarthi, S., 2021, Overview on toxicity of nanoparticles, it’s mechanism, models used in toxicity studies and disposal methods – A review, Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol., 36, 102117.

[61] Meng, Y., Zhang, H., Hu, N., Zhang, B., Qiu, Z., Hu, J., Zheng, G., Zhang, L., and Xu, X., 2021, Construction of silver nanoparticles by the triple helical polysaccharide from black fungus and the antibacterial activities, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 182, 1170–1178.

[62] Chaiendoo, K., Sooksin, S., Kulchat, S., Promarak, V., Tuntulani, T., and Ngeontae, W., 2018, A new formaldehyde sensor from silver nanoclusters modified Tollens’ reagent, Food Chem., 255, 41–48.

[63] Flores-Rojas, G.G., López-Saucedo, F., and Bucio, E., 2020, Gamma-irradiation applied in the synthesis of metallic and organic nanoparticles: A short review, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 169, 107962.

[64] Zeroual, S., Estellé, P., Cabaleiro, D., Vigolo, B., Emo, M., Halim, W., and Ouaskit, S., 2020, Ethylene glycol based silver nanoparticles synthesized by polyol process: Characterization and thermophysical profile, J. Mol. Liq., 310, 113229.

[65] Sanjana, S., Medha, M.U., Meghna, M.R., Shruthi, T.S., Srinivas, S.P., Madhyastha, H., Navya, P.N., and Daima, H.K., 2019, Enzyme immobilization on quercetin capped gold and silver nanoparticles for improved performance, Mater. Today: Proc., 10, 92–99.

[66] Ullah, A., Ali, I., Ahmed, F., Khan, S., Shah, M.R., and Shaheen, F., 2019, Synthesis and characterization of peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticle for selective detection of Hg2+ in human blood plasma and tap water, J. Mol. Liq., 296, 112095.

[67] Das, P., Dutta, T., Manna, S., Loganathan, S., and Basak, P., 2022, Facile green synthesis of non-genotoxic, non-hemolytic organometallic silver nanoparticles using extract of crushed, wasted, and spent Humulus lupulus (Hops): Characterization, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer studies, Environ. Res., 204, 111962.

[68] Jan, H., Zaman, G., Usman, H., Ansir, R., Drouet, S., Gigliolo-Guivarc’h, N., Hano, C., and Abbasi, B.H., 2021, Biogenically proficient synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) employing aqueous extract of Aquilegia pubiflora along with their in vitro antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other biological applications, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 15, 950–968.

[69] Lava, M.B., Muddapur, U.M., Basavegowda, N., More, S.S., and More, V.S., 2021, Characterization, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Justica wynaadensis leaves extract, Mater. Today: Proc., 46, 5942–5947.

[70] Badmus, J.A., Oyemomi, S.A., Adedosu, O.T., Yekeen, T.A., Azeez, M.A., Adebayo, E.A., Lateef, A., Badeggi, U.M., Botha, S., Hussein, A.A., and Marnewick, J.L., 2020, Photo-assisted bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata leaf extract: Exploring the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities, Heliyon, 6 (11), e05413.

[71] Nilavukkarasi, M., Vijayakumar, S., and Prathip Kumar, S., 2020, Biological synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles with Capparis zeylanica L. leaf extract for potent antimicrobial and anti proliferation efficiency, Mater. Sci. Energy Technol., 3, 371–376.

[72] Vijayakumar, S., Malaikozhundan, B., Saravanakumar, K., Durán-Lara, E.F., Wang, M.H., and Vaseeharan, B., 2019, Garlic clove extract assisted silver nanoparticle – Antibacterial, antibiofilm, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and ecotoxicity assessment, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 198, 111558.

[73] Kumar, V., Singh, S., Srivastava, B., Bhadouria, R., and Singh, R., 2019, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Holoptelea integrifolia and preliminary investigation of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 7 (3), 103094.

[74] Govindappa, M., Hemashekhar, B., Arthikala, M.K., Ravishankar Rai, V., and Ramachandra, Y.L., 2018, Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract, Results Phys., 9, 400–408.

[75] Jalab, J., Abdelwahed, W., Kitaz, A., and Al-Kayali, R., 2021, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Acacia cyanophylla and its antibacterial activity, Heliyon, 7 (9), e08033.

[76] Oves, M., Ahmar Rauf, M., Aslam, M., Qari, H.A., Sonbol, H., Ahmad, I., Sarwar Zaman, G., and Saeed, M., 2021, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Conocarpus lancifolius plant extract and their antimicrobial and anticancer activities, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 29 (1), 460–471.

[77] Francis, S., Joseph, S., Koshy, E.P., and Mathew, B., 2018, Microwave assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Elephantopus scaber and its environmental and biological applications, Artif. Cells Nanomed. Biotechnol., 46 (4), 795–804.

[78] Asghar, M.A., Zahir, E., Shahid, S.M., Khan, M.N., Asghar, M.A., Iqbal, J., and Walker, G., 2018, Iron, copper and silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis using green and black tea leaves extracts and evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and aflatoxin B1 adsorption activity, LWT, 90, 98–107.

[79] Ajitha, B., Reddy, Y.A.K., Jeon, H.J., and Ahn, C.W., 2018, Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in an eco-friendly way using Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract: Antimicrobial and catalytic activity, Adv. Powder Technol., 29 (1), 86–93.

[80] Baghayeri, M., Mahdavi, B., Hosseinpor‐Mohsen Abadi, Z., and Farhadi, S, 2018, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using water extract of Salvia leriifolia: Antibacterial studies and applications as catalysts in the electrochemical detection of nitrite, Appl. Organomet. Chem., 32 (2), e4057.

[81] He, Y., Wei, F., Ma, Z., Zhang, H., Yang, Q., Yao, B., Huang, Z., Li, J., Zeng, C., and Zhang, Q., 2017, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Alpinia katsumadai, and their antioxidant, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities, RSC Adv., 7 (63), 39842–39851.

[82] He, Y., Li, X., Zheng, Y., Wang, Z., Ma, Z., Yang, Q., Yao, B., Zhao, Y., and Zhang, H., 2018, A green approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles, and their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities, New J. Chem., 42 (4), 2882–2888.

[83] Hamedi, S., Shojaosadati, S.A., and Mohammadi, A., 2017, Evaluation of the catalytic, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of the Convolvulus arvensis extract functionalized silver nanoparticles, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 167, 36–44.

[84] Mohanta, Y.K., Panda, S.K., Jayabalan, R., Sharma, N., Bastia, A.K., and Mohanta, T.K., 2017, Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.), Front. Mol. Biosci., 4, 14.

[85] Rodríguez-Félix, F., López-Cota, A.G., Moreno-Vásquez, M.J., Graciano-Verdugo, A.Z., Quintero-Reyes, I.E., Del-Toro-Sánchez, C.L., and Tapia-Hernández, J.A., 2021, Sustainable-green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) waste extract and its antibacterial activity, Heliyon, 7 (4), e06923.

[86] Azizian-Shermeh, O., Einali, A., and Ghasemi, A., 2017, Rapid biologically one-step synthesis of stable bioactive silver nanoparticles using Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) leaf extract and their antimicrobial activities, Adv. Powder Technol., 28 (12), 3164–3171.

[87] Bhuyan, B., Paul, A., Paul, B., Dhar, S.S., and Dutta, P., 2017, Paederia foetida Linn. promoted biogenic gold and silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and in vitro efficacy against clinically isolated pathogens, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 173, 210–215.

[88] Soni, N., and Dhiman, R.C., 2017, Phytochemical, anti-oxidant, larvicidal, and antimicrobial activities of castor (Ricinus communis) synthesized silver nanoparticles, Chin. Herb. Med., 9 (3), 289–294.

[89] Elemike, E.E., Onwudiwe, D.C., Ekennia, A.C., Ehiri, R.C., and Nnaji, N.J., 2017, Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extracts of Lippia citriodora: Antimicrobial, larvicidal and photocatalytic evaluations, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 75, 980–989.

[90] Paosen, S., Jindapol, S., Soontarach, R., and Voravuthikunchai, S.P., 2019, Eucalyptus citriodora leaf extract‐mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles: broad antimicrobial spectrum and mechanisms of action against hospital‐acquired pathogens, APMIS, 127 (12), 764–778.

[91] Yin, I.X., Zhang, J., Zhao, I.S., Mei, M.L., Li, Q., and Chu, C.H., 2020, The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry, Int. J. Nanomed., 15, 2555–2562.

[92] Neupane, N.P., Kushwaha, A.K., Karn, A.K., Khalilullah, H., Uzzaman Khan, M.M., Kaushik, A., and Verma, A., 2021, Anti-bacterial efficacy of bio-fabricated silver nanoparticles of aerial part of Moringa oleifera Lam.: Rapid green synthesis, in-vitro and in-silico screening, Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol., 39, 102229.

[93] Zhang, J., Liu, S., Han, J., Wang, Z., and Zhang, S., 2021, On the developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles, Mater. Des., 203, 109611.

[94] Kong, Y., Paray, B.A., Al-Sadoon, M.K., and Fahad Albeshr, M., 2021, Novel green synthesis, chemical characterization, toxicity, colorectal carcinoma, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anticholinergic properties of silver nanoparticles: A chemopharmacological study, Arabian J. Chem., 14 (6), 103193.

[95] Gao, Y., Wu, W., Qiao, K., Feng, J., Zhu, L., and Zhu, X., 2021, Bioavailability and toxicity of silver nanoparticles: Determination based on toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic processes, Water Res., 204, 117603.

[96] Zhao, J., Wang, X., Hoang, S.A., Bolan, N.S., Kirkham, M.B., Liu, J., Xia, X., and Li, Y., 2021, Silver nanoparticles in aquatic sediments: Occurrence, chemical transformations, toxicity, and analytical methods, J. Hazard. Mater., 418, 126368.

[97] Jafir, M., Ahmad, J.N., Arif, M.J., Ali, S., and Ahmad, S.J.N., 2021, Characterization of Ocimum basilicum synthesized silver nanoparticles and its relative toxicity to some insecticides against tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Feb. (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 218, 112278.

[98] Vanlalveni, C., Lallianrawna, S., Biswas, A., Selvaraj, M., Changmai, B., and Rokhum, S.L., 2021, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts and their antimicrobial activities: A review of recent literature, RSC Adv., 11 (5), 2804–2837.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.71053

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4252 | views : 2527

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.