Utilizing Organic Aromatic Melamine Moiety to Modify Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Chemical Structure and Micro CuO That Plays an Important Role to Enhance Its Photophysical Features

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.70263

Mohammed Hussein Al-Mashhadani(1*), Ekhlas Abdulkhadiar Salman(2), Amani Ayad Husain(3), Mustafa Abdallh(4), Muna Bufaroosha(5), Emad Yousif(6)

(1) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, 64021, Baghdad, Iraq
(2) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, 64021, Baghdad, Iraq
(3) Polymer Research Unit, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, 10052, Baghdad, Iraq
(4) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, 64021, Baghdad, Iraq
(5) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, UAE University, 15551, Al-Ain, UAE
(6) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, 64021, Baghdad, Iraq
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Three arms Schiff base unit based on melamine moiety was synthesized and introduced to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to produce a modified PVC polymer. The polymer composite of new modified PVC polymer was blended with micro copper oxide as a reflecting mirror of UV light to enhance the photostability of PVC. Three different concentrations of micro copper oxide (0.01–0.03 wt.%) were mixed with the modified PVC and cast as a thin film. The photostability test has shown high resistance to photodegradation upon exposure to UV light. In this work, different approaches were applied to examining doped modified PVC's thin film efficiency against photodegradation after exposure to UV light for 300 h in an ambient atmosphere. The exhibited studies, such as infrared spectroscopy and weight loss percentage, have demonstrated the improvement of photophysical properties for modified PVC and blended modified films in comparison to blank PVC polymeric films. These outcomes are so interesting as they could contribute to reducing the consumption of PVC around the world hence its waste causing huge environmental problems for the marine ecosystem.


Keywords


aromatic; photo-stabilizers; micro copper oxide; FTIR; melamine

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Huang, Z., Ding, A., Guo, H., Lu, G., and Huang, X., 2016, Construction of nontoxic polymeric UV-absorber with great resistance to UV-photoaging, Sci. Rep., 6 (1), 25508.

[2] Martins, L.M.D.R.S., Hazra, S., Guedes de Silva, M.F.C., and Pombeiro, A.J.L., 2016, A sulfonated Schiff base dimethyltin(IV) coordination polymer: Synthesis, characterization and application as a catalyst for ultrasound- or microwave-assisted Baeyer-Villiger oxidation under solvent-free conditions, RSC Adv., 6 (81), 78225–78233.

[3] Najafi, V., Ahmadi, E., and Ziaee, F., 2018, Chemical modification of PVC by different nucleophiles in solvent/non-solvent system at high temperature, Iran. Polym. J., 27 (11), 841–850.

[4] Allen, N.S., and Edge, M., 2021, Perspectives on additives for polymers. Part 2. Aspects of photostabilization and role of fillers and pigments, J. Vinyl Addit. Technol., 27 (2), 211–239.

[5] Lu, L., Kumagai, S., Kameda, T., Luo, L., and Yoshioka, T., 2019, Degradation of PVC waste into a flexible polymer by chemical modification using DINP moieties, RSC Adv., 9 (49), 28870–28875.

[6] Sabaa, M.W., Oraby, E.H., Abdel Naby, A.S., and Mohammed, R.R., 2005, Anthraquinone derivatives as organic stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) against photodegradation, Eur. Polym. J., 41 (11), 2530–2543.

[7] Yang, K., Zeng, H., Zhong, A., Yuan, H., Zeng, S, and Ma, Y., 2020, Effect of vinyl chloride copolymer elastomer on modification and properties of PVC, Zhongguo Suliao, 34 (9), 16–21.

[8] Sabaa, M.W., and Mohamed, R.R., 2007, Phenyl urea derivatives as organic stabilizers for rigid poly (vinyl chloride) against photo‐degradation, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 103 (4), 2217–2226.

[9] Folarin, O.M., and Sadiku, E.R., 2011, Thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride): A review, Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6 (18), 4323–4330.

[10] Abdrakhmanova, L.A., and Stroganov, V.F., 2019, Modification of polyvinyl chloride compositions by polymerizable epoxyallyl oligomers, Polym. Sci., Ser. D, 12 (2), 121–123.

[11] Khalaf, M., Fadhil, Z., Al-Mashhadani, M.H., Abdallh, M., Bufaroosha, M., Majeed, A., Salih N., and Yousif, E., 2020, PVC films performance stabilized by dibutyltin(IV) complex for sustainable environment, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1664, 012072.

[12] Samuels, A., Rensing, K., Douglas, C., Mansfield, S., Dharmawardhana, D., and Ellis, B., 2002, Cellular machinery of wood production: Differentiation of secondary xylem in Pinus contorta var latifolia, Planta, 216 (1), 72–82.

[13] Bhuiyan, N.H., Selvaraj, G., Wei, Y., and King, J., 2009, Role of lignification in plant defense, Plant Signaling Behav., 4 (2), 158–159.

[14] Sabaa, M.W., Oraby, E.H., Naby, A.S.A., and Mohamed, R.R., 2005, Anthraquinone derivatives as organic stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) against photo-degradation, Eur. Polym. J., 41 (11), 2530–2543.

[15] Hoffman, E., Guernsey, J.R., Walker, T.R., Kim, J.S., Sherren, K., and Andreou, P., 2017, Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24 (25), 20685–20698.

[16] Ahmed, D.S., Ibrahim, F.M., Bufaroosha, M., Al-Mashhadani, M.H., Jawad, A.H., Yusop, R.M., Salih, N., Mohammed, S.A., and Yousif, E., 2021, Polyphosphates as thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride), Mater. Today: Proc., 42, 2680–2685.

[17] Zhao, X., and Liu, D., 2013, Kinetic modeling and mechanisms of acid-catalyzed delignification of sugarcane bagasse by aqueous acetic acid, BioEnergy Res., 6 (2), 436–447.

[18] Hoffman, E., Bernier, M., Blotnicky, B., Golden, P.G., Janes, J., Kader, A., Kovacs-Da Costa, R., Pettipas, S., Vermeulen, S., and Walker, T.R., 2015, Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: A Canadian case study, Environ. Monit. Assess., 187 (12), 766.

[19] Qi, B., and Yang, Q., 2020, Application of PVC-melamine-formaldehyde resin composite in drug adsorption, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 892, 012016.

[20] Pi, H., Xiong, Y., and Guo, S., 2005, The kinetic studies of elimination of HCl during thermal decomposition of PVC in the presence of transition metal oxides, Polym.-Plast. Technol. Eng., 44 (2), 275–288.

[21] Rodionova, A.P., Zemlyakova, E.O., Koryakova, O.V., Mekhaev, A.V., Azarova, Y.A., Bratskaya, S.Y., and Pestov, A.V., 2019, Chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride with thiourea, Russ. Chem. Bull., 68 (6), 1248–1251.

[22] Hoffman, E., Lyons, J., Boxall, J., Robertson, C., Lake, C.B., and Walker, T.R., 2017, Spatiotemporal assessment (quarter century) of pulp mill metal (loid) contaminated sediment to inform remediation decisions, Environ. Monit. Assess., 189 (6), 257.

[23] Ahmed, A., Abdallh, M., Al-Mashhadani, M.H., Ahmed, D.S., Bufaroosha, M., Jawad, A.H., and Yousif, E., 2021, Environmental stability of poly(vinyl chloride) modified by Schiff's base under exposure to UV, Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem., 11 (5), 13465–13473.

[24] Hussein, S.S., Ibrahim, S.S., Toma, M.A., Alsalhy, Q.F., and Drioli, E., 2020, Novel chemical modification of polyvinyl chloride membrane by free radical graft copolymerization for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) application, J. Membr. Sci., 611, 118266.

[25] Ahmed, A., Al-Mashhadani, M.H., Ahmed, D.S., Ahmed, A.A., Yousif, E., and Yusop, R.M., 2021, Preparation of polymeric films containing Schiff base as UV-absorber with good resistance against UV-photoaging, Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem., 11 (5), 12743–12749.

[26] Moersilah, M., Siswanta, D., Roto, R., and Mudasir, M., 2017, PAN-immobilized PVC-NPOE membrane for environmentally friendly sensing of Cd(II) ions, Indones. J. Chem., 17 (1), 1–6.

[27] Al-Mashhadani, M.H., Thamer, H., Adil, H., Ahmed, A., Ahmed, D.S., Bufaroosha, M., Jawad, A.H., and Yousif, E., 2021, Environmental and morphological behavior of polystyrene films containing Schiff base moiety, Mater. Today: Proc., 42, 2693–2699.

[28] Visakh, P.M., and Darie-Nita, R.N., 2022, “Polyvinylchloride (PVC)-Based Blends: State of Art, New Challenges and Opportunities” in Polyvinylchloride-based Blends: Preparation, Characterization and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 1–17.

[29] Shneshil, M.K., and Redayan, M.A., 2010, Photostabilization of PVC films by using some novel tetra Schiff’s bases derived from 1,2,4,5-tetra-[5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl]-benzene, Diyala J. Pure Sci., 7 (1), 34–77.

[30] Rasti, F., and Scott, G., 1980, Mechanisms of antioxidant action: The role of copper salts in the photostabilization of paint media, Eur. Polym. J., 16 (12), 1153–1158.

[31] Gaballah, S.T., El-Nazer, H.A., Abdel-Monem, R.A., El-Liethy, M.A., Hemdan, B.A., and Rabie, S.T., 2019, Synthesis of novel chitosan-PVC conjugates encompassing Ag nanoparticles as antibacterial polymers for biomedical applications, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 121, 707–717.

[32] Priya, A., Senthil, R.A., Selvi, A., Arunachalam, P., Senthil Kumar, C.K., Madhavan, J., Boddula, R., Pothu, R., and Al-Mayouf, A.M., 2020, A study of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity of as-synthesized WO3/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts for AO7 degradation, Mater. Sci. Energy Technol., 3, 43–50.

[33] Bufaroosha, M., Salih, N., Hadi, A.G., Ahmed, D.S., Al-Mashhadani, M.H., and Yousif, E., 2020, The effect of UV aging on the structure of PVC in the presence of organotin(IV) compounds, ANJS, 23, 57–61.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.70263

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1030 | views : 510


Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.