Adsorption of Bemacid Red by Poly Tetra (Ethylene Glycol) Dimethacrylate Crosslinked with 2-Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate Hydrogels: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Asmahane Fasla(1*), Zoubida Seghier(2), Abdelkader Iddou(3), Laura Caserta(4)

(1) Laboratory of Macromolecular Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences, Oran 1 Ahmed Benbella El Mnaouer University, Oran, Algeria; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, of Science and Technology University, Oran, El Mnaouer, Oran, Algeria
(2) Laboratory of Macromolecular Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences, Oran 1 Ahmed Benbella El Mnaouer University, Oran, Algeria
(3) Laboratory of Materials Recovery and Nuisance Treatment, Mostaganem University, Mostaganem, Algeria
(4) Catalysis-Master Park Company, Marseille, France
(*) Corresponding Author


Besides others, textile industries are the primary sources of discharging a massive amount of highly colored wastewater. Adsorption can be considered the most economically favorable technology method for removing dyes from wastewater. This paper reports the synthesis of Poly tetra (ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate crosslinked with 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (Poly (TtEGDMA-cross-2-HPMA)) hydrogelsand its application as a novel sorbent to remove bemacid red (ET2) dye from aqueous solution under various operating conditions. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was found 142.82–883.60 mg ET2 g–1 of 1% TtEGDMA. The adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR) and 13carbon solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (13C-NMR). The effects of the experimental parameters include dye concentration and crosslinked agent concentration. The kinetic sorption uptake for ET2 by Poly (TtEGDMA-cross-2-HPMA) at various initial dye concentrations was analyzed by pseudo-first and pseudo-second models. Two sorption isotherms, namely the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, were applied to the sorption equilibrium data. The sorption kinetics of ET2 onto the hydrogels followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model (R2 = 0.999) and the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.999). It can be concluded that Poly (TtEGDMA-cross-2-HPMA) is an alternative economic sorbent to more costly adsorbents used for dye removal in wastewater treatment processes.


tetra (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate; 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate; bemacid red; pseudo-second model; Langmuir isotherm

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Santhi, T., Manonmani, S., Vasantha, S.V., and Chang, T.Y., 2016, A new alternative adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution, Arabian J. Chem., 9, S466–S474.

[2] Bhattacharyya, R., and Ray, S.K., 2015, Removal of Congo red and methyl violet from water using nano clay filled composite hydrogels of poly acrylic acid and polyethylene glycol, Chem. Eng. J., 260, 269–283.

[3] Ilgin, P., Ozay, H., and Ozay, O., 2019, Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from colored noxious effluent using a novel N-tert-butylmaleamic acid based hydrogels, React. Funct. Polym., 142, 189–198.

[4] Yaseen, D.A., and Scholz, M., 2019, Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: A critical review, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 16 (2), 1193–1226.

[5] Khan, M., and Lo, I.M.C., 2016, A holistic review of hydrogel applications in the adsorptive removal of aqueous pollutants: Recent progress, challenges, and perspectives, Water Res., 106, 259–271.

[6] Tran, V.V., Park, D., and Lee, Y.C., 2018, Hydrogel applications for adsorption of contaminants in water and wastewater treatment, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25, 24569–24599.

[7] Pakdel, P.M., and Peighambardoust, S.J., 2018, A review on acrylic based hydrogels and their applications in wastewater treatment, J. Environ. Manage., 217, 123–143.

[8] Titchou, F.E., Ait Akbour, R., Assabane, A., and Hamdani, M., 2020, Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution using Moroccan pozzolana as adsorbent: Isotherms, kinetic studies, and application on real textile wastewater treatment, Groundwater Sustainable Dev., 11, 100405.

[9] Wang, F., Li, L., Iqbal, J., Yang, Z., and Du, Y., 2022, Preparation of magnetic chitosan corn straw biochar and its application in adsorption of amaranth dye in aqueous solution, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 199, 234–242.

[10] Jawad, A.H., and Abdulhameed, A.S., 2020, Mesoporous Iraqi red kaolin clay as an efficient adsorbent for methylene blue dye: Adsorption kinetic, isotherm and mechanism study, Surfaces and Interfaces, 18, 100422.

[11] Munthalia, M.W., Johan, E., Aono, H., and Matsue, N., 2015, Cs+ and Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of zeolites in relation to radioactive decontamination, J. Asian Ceram. Soc., 3 (3), 245–250.

[12] Niaei, H.A., and Rostamizadeh, M., 2020, Adsorption of metformin from an aqueous solution by Fe-ZSM-5 nano-adsorbent: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 142, 106003.

[13] Brião, G.V., Jahn, S.L., Foletto, E.L., and Dotto, G.L., 2017, Adsorption of crystal violet dye onto a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthetized using chitin as template, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 508, 313–322.

[14] Zhao, X., Zhao, H., Huang, X., Wang, L., Liu, F., Hu, X., Li, J., Zhang, G., and Ji, P., 2021, Effect and mechanisms of synthesis conditions on the cadmium adsorption capacity of modified fly ash, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 223, 112550.

[15] Benvenuti, J., Fisch, A., dos Santos, J.H.Z., and Gutterres, M., 2019, Silica-based adsorbent material with grape bagasse encapsulated by the solgel method for the adsorption of Basic Blue 41 dye, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 7 (5), 103342.

[16] Raghav, S., Jain, P., and Kumar, D., 2022, Assembly of cerium impregnated pectin/silica–gel biopolymeric material for effective utilization for fluoride adsorption studies, Mater. Today: Proc., 50, 273–281.

[17] Wang, D., Zhang, J., Yang, Q., Li, N., and Sumathy, K., 2014, Study of adsorption characteristics in silica gel–water adsorption refrigeration, Appl. Energy, 113, 734–741.

[18] Zhang, Y., Xia, K., Liu, X., Chen, Z., Du, H., and Zhang, X., 2019, Synthesis of cationic-modified silica gel and its adsorption properties for anionic dyes, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 102, 1–8.

[19] Sadiq, A.C., Olasupo, A., Wan Ngah, W.S., Rahim, N.Y., and Mohd Suah, F.B., 2021, A decade development in the application of chitosan-based materials for dye adsorption: A short review, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 191, 1151–1163.

[20] Singh, A., Pal, D.B., Kumar, S., Srivastva, N., Syed, A., Elgorban, A.M., Singh, R., and Gupta, V.K., 2021, Studies on Zero-cost algae based phytoremediation of dye and heavy metal from simulated wastewater, Bioresour. Technol., 342, 125971.

[21] Benafqir, M., Hsini, A Laabd, M., Laktif, T., Ait Addi, A., Albourine, A., and El Alem, N., 2020, Application of Density Functional Theory computation (DFT) and Process Capability Study for performance evaluation of orthophosphate removal process using Polyaniline@Hematite-titaniferous sand composite (PANI@HTS) as a substrate, Sep. Purif. Technol., 236, 116286.

[22] Liu, C., Chen, X.X., Zhang, J., Zhou, H.Z., Zhang, L., and Guo, Y.K., 2018, Advanced treatment of bio-treated coal chemical wastewater by a novel combination of microbubble catalytic ozonation and biological process, Sep. Purif. Technol., 197, 295–301.

[23] Zhou, L., Zhou, H., and Yang, X., 2019, Preparation and performance of a novel starch-based inorganic/organic composite coagulant for textile wastewater treatment, Sep. Purif. Technol., 210, 93–99.

[24] Gupta, V.K., Tyagi, I., Agarwal, S., Singh, R., Chaudhary, M., Harit, A., and Kushwaha, S., 2016, Column operation studies for the removal of dyes and phenols using a low cost adsorbent, Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 2, 1–10.

[25] Darwish, A.A.A., Rashad, M., and AL-Aoh, H.A., 2019, Methyl orange adsorption comparison on nanoparticles: Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies, Dyes Pigm., 160, 563–571.

[26] Mahmoud, G.A., Abdel-Aal, S.E., Badway, N.A., Elbayaa, A.A., and Ahmed, D.F., 2017, A novel hydrogel based on agricultural waste for removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution and reuse process in a secondary adsorption, Polym. Bull., 74 (2), 337–358.

[27] Nasef, M.M., and Güven, O., 2012, Radiation-grafted copolymers for separation and purification purposes: Status, challenges and future directions, Prog. Polym. Sci., 37 (12), 1597–1656.

[28] El Haouti, R., Ouachtak, H., El Guerdaoui, A., Amedlous, A., Amaterz, E., Haounati, R., Ait Addi, A., Akbal, F., El Alem, N., and Taha, M.L., 2019, Cationic dyes adsorption by Na-montmorillonite nano clay: Experimental study combined with a theoretical investigation using DFT based descriptors and molecular dynamics simulations, J. Mol. Liq., 290, 111139.

[29] El-Zahhar, A.A., Awwad, N.S., and El-Katori, E.E., 2014, Removal of bromophenol blue dye from industrial waste water by synthesizing polymer-clay composite, J. Mol. Liq., 199, 454–461.

[30] Fayazi, M., Afzali, D., Taher, M.A., Mostafavi, A., and Gupta, V.K., 2015, Removal of Safranin dye from aqueous solution using magnetic mesoporous clay: Optimization study, J. Mol. Liq., 212, 675–685.

[31] Zhang, Z., Wang, W., Kang, Y., Zong, L., and Wang, A., 2016, Tailoring the properties of palygorskite by various organic acids via a one-pot hydrothermal process: A comparative study for removal of toxic dyes, Appl. Clay Sci., 120, 28–39.

[32] Subbaiah, M.V., and Kim, D.S., 2016, Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution by aminated pumpkin seed powder: Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 128, 109–117.

[33] Chang, Z., Chen, Y., Tang, S., Yang, J., Chen, Y., Chen, S., Li, P., and Yang, Z., 2020, Construction of chitosan/polyacrylate/graphene oxide composite physical hydrogel by semi-dissolution/acidification/sol-gel transition method and its simultaneous cationic and anionic dye adsorption properties, Carbohydr. Polym., 229, 115431.

[34] Sebti, H., Fasla, A., and Ould Kada, S., 2015, Swelling properties of hydrogel networks of poly (methacrylic acid-cross-Nacrylate-N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl ammonium bromide). Application in the sorption of an industrial dye, Pharma Chem., 7 (11), 17–25.

[35] Abd Malek, N.N., Jawad, A.H., Ismail, K., Razuan, R., and ALOthman, Z.A., 2021, Fly ash modified magnetic chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend for reactive orange 16 dye removal: Adsorption parametric optimization, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 189, 464–476.

[36] Ilgin, P., Ozay, H., and Ozay, O., 2019, Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from colored noxious effluent using a novel N-tert-butylmaleamic acid based hydrogels, React. Funct. Polym., 142, 189–198.

[37] Tiwari, J.N., Mahesh, K., Le, N.H., Kemp, K.C., Timilsina, R., Tiwari, R.N., and Kim, K.S., 2013, Reduced graphene oxide-based hydrogels for the efficient capture of dye pollutants from aqueous solutions, Carbon, 56, 173–182.

[38] Bello, K., Sarojini, B.K., Narayana, B., Rao, A., and Byrappa, K., 2018, A study on adsorption behavior of newly synthesized banana pseudo-stem derived superabsorbent hydrogels for cationic and anionic dye removal from effluents, Carbohydr. Polym., 181, 605–615.

[39] Bhattacharyya, R., and Ray, S.K., 2014, Micro- and nano-sized bentonite filled composite superabsorbents of chitosan and acrylic copolymer for removal of synthetic dyes from water, Appl. Clay Sci., 101, 510–520.

[40] Maity, J., and Ray, S.K., 2014, Enhanced adsorption of methyl violet and Congo red by using semi and full IPN of polymethacrylic acid and chitosan, Carbohydr. Polym., 104, 8–16.

[41] Bhattacharyya, R., Ray, S.K., and Mandal, B., 2013, A systematic method of synthesizing composite superabsorbent hydrogels from crosslink copolymer for removal of textile dyes from water, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 19 (4), 1191–1203.

[42] Bhattacharyya, R., and Ray, S.K., 2014, Enhanced adsorption of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by a semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel based on starch, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 20 (5), 3714–3725.

[43] Pandey, S., Do, J.Y., Kim, J., and Kang, M., 2020, Fast and highly efficient removal of dye from aqueous solution using natural locust bean gum based hydrogels as adsorbent, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 143, 60–75.

[44] Bai, X., Gao, S., and Chen, W., 2014, The effect of anion NO3−/SO42−/F on the optical performance and chroma index of glass coloured by cobalt, Int. J. Microstruct. Mater. Prop., 9 (6), 525–531.

[45] Li, Y., Li, L., Chen, T., Duan, T., Yao, W., Zheng, K., Dai, L., and Zhu, W., 2018, Bioassembly of fungal hypha/graphene oxide aerogel as high performance adsorbents for U(VI) removal, Chem. Eng. J., 347, 407–414.

[46] Baig, U., Uddin, M.K., and Gondal, M., 2020, Removal of hazardous azo dye from water using synthetic nano adsorbent: Facile synthesis, characterization, adsorption, regeneration and design of experiments, Colloids Surf., A, 584, 124031–124046.

[47] Li, R., An, Q.D., Xiao, Z.Y., Zhai, B., Zhai, S.R., and Shi, Z., 2017, Preparation of PEI/CS aerogel beads with a high density of reactive sites for efficient Cr(vi) sorption: Batch and column studies, RSC Adv., 7 (64), 40227–40236.

[48] Cao, Q., Huang, F., Zhuang, Z., and Lin, Z., 2012, A study of the potential application of nano-Mg(OH)2 in adsorbing low concentrations of uranyl tricarbonate from water, Nanoscale, 4 (7), 2423–2430.

[49] Jawad, A.H., Abd Malek, N.N., Abdulhameed, A.S., and Razuan, R., 2020, Synthesis of magnetic chitosan-fly ash/Fe3O4 composite for adsorption of reactive orange 16 dye: Optimization by Box–Behnken design, J. Polym. Environ., 28 (3), 1068–1082.

[50] Abd Malek, N.N., Jawad, A.H., Abdulhameed, A.S., Ismail, K., and Hameed, B., 2020, New magnetic Schiff's base-chitosan-glyoxal/fly ash/Fe3O4 biocomposite for the removal of anionic azo dye: An optimized process, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 146, 530–539.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1485 | views : 760

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.