On the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) – Alginate Composite Yarn Reinforced with Nanocellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches


Ainul Maghfirah(1), Farah Fahma(2), Nurmalisa Lisdayana(3), Muchammad Yunus(4), Ahmad Kusumaatmaja(5), Grandprix Thomryes Marth Kadja(6*)

(1) Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
(2) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Gedung Fateta, Jl. Raya Dramaga, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
(3) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Jl. Terusan Ryacudu, Way Hui Jati Agung, South Lampung 35365, Indonesia
(4) Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Campus C, Jl. Mulyorejo, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(5) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(6) Division of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia Research Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia Center for Catalysis and Reaction Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


PVA-alginate hydrogel is a promising material for use in biomedical applications due to its desirable characteristics: biocompatible, durable, non-toxic, and low cost. However, the low gel strength of this composite limits its use in biomedical applications. This study aims to develop enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA-alginate composite yarn by adding nanocellulose isolated from the sustainable oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFBs). The PVA-alginate composite yarns reinforced with nanocellulose were prepared with various nanocellulose contents (1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 5 wt.%). The composite's tensile strength exhibited an increasing trend with the addition of nanocellulose, while the elongation at break showed the opposite trend. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the composite's thermal degradation shifts to higher temperatures with the addition of nanocellulose. The observed activation energies for the thermal degradation calculated using the Coats-Redfern method exhibited a significant increment for the composites reinforced with nanocellulose. These results show that the addition of nanocellulose into the PVA-alginate matrix enhances the chemical and thermal properties of the resulting hydrogel. All these improvements have resulted from more abundant and robust hydrogen bonds generated by the nanocellulose presence.


nanocellulose; OPEFBs; PVA-alginate; mechanical stability; thermal stability

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.67881

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