Optimization of Polyurethane Membrane Physical Characteristics of Red Seaweed Biomass Using a Box-Behnken Design

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.63649

Salfauqi Nurman(1), Saiful Saiful(2*), Binawati Ginting(3), Rahmi Rahmi(4), Marlina Marlina(5)

(1) Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia Department of Agricultural Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Banda Aceh 23245, Indonesia Malahayati Merchant Marine Polytechnic, Aceh Besar 23381, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The polyurethane membrane is used as a separator either by filtration or adsorption, and this process is significantly affected by its strength and physical condition. We synthesized polyurethane membranes using red seaweed with Gracilaria sp as a hydroxyl source. The Box-Behnken Design of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Software Design Expert Version 10.0.3.0 with three factors (TRL, TDI, and Glycerin). The F-value of 0.42 suggests that the membrane is less fit, while the P-value of 75.10% indicates that the quadratic design model is suitable for data analysis of physical characteristics. The optimal physical characteristics were obtained at a composition of 0.233 g TRL, 2.675 g TDI, and 0.254 g glycerin with a physical point of 6.5 (strong and elastic). Optimal polyurethane membrane has good thermal and mechanical properties at temperatures of Tg 58 °C, Tm 322 °C, and Td 534 °C, as well as stress and nominal strain values of 69.3 MPa and 5.74%. Polyurethane membrane synthesized from red seaweed has good physical properties. The result of this research is the basis for the development of polyurethane membrane applications from red seaweed.

Keywords


physical characteristics; response surface methodology; optimization; polyurethane membranes

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Karimi, M.B., Khanbabaei, G., Mir, G., and Sadeghi, G.M.M., 2017, Vegetable oil-based polyurethane membrane for gas separation, J. Membr. Sci., 527, 198–206.

[2] Hao, S., Jia, Z., Wen, J., Li, S., Peng, W., Huang, R., and Xu, X., 2021, Progress in adsorptive membranes for separation – A review, Sep. Purif. Technol., 255, 117772.

[3] Kyllönen, H.M., Pirkonen, P., and Nyström, M., 2005, Membrane filtration enhanced by ultrasound: A review, Desalination, 181 (1-3), 319–335.

[4] Zhao, D.L., Japip, S., Zhang, Y., Weber, M., Maletzko, C., and Chung, T.S., 2020, Emerging thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for reverse osmosis: A review, Water Res., 173, 115557.

[5] Joshi, M., Adak, B., and Butola, B.S., 2018, Polyurethane nanocomposite based gas barrier films, membranes and coatings: A review on synthesis, characterization and potential applications, Prog. Mater Sci., 97, 230–282.

[6] Ersahin, M.E., Ozgun, H., Dereli, R.K., Ozturk, I., Roest, K., and van Lier, J.B., 2012, A review on dynamic membrane filtration: Materials, applications and future perspectives, Bioresour. Technol., 122, 196–206.

[7] Singh, I., and Mishra, P.K., 2020, Nano-membrane filtration a novel application of nanotechnology for waste water treatment, Mater. Today: Proc., 29, 327–332.

[8] Marlina, Iqhrammullah, M., Saleha, S., Fathurrahmi, Maulina, F.P., and Idroes, R., 2020, Polyurethane film prepared from ball-milled algal polyol particle and activated carbon filler for NH3–N removal, Heliyon, 6 (8), e04590.

[9] Howard, G.T., 2002, Biodegradation of polyurethane: A review, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 49 (4), 245–252.

[10] Nurman, S., Marlina, Saiful, and Saleha, S., 2015, Sintesis dan karakterisasi membran poliuretan dari minyak biji karet dan heksametilen-1,6-diisosianat, JRKL, 10 (4), 188–195.

[11] Matavos-Aramyan, S., Jazebizadeh, M.H., and Babaei, S., 2020, Investigating CO2, O2 and N2 permeation properties of two new types of nanocomposite membranes: Polyurethane/silica and polyesterurethane/silica, Nano-Struct. Nano-Objects, 21, 100414.

[12] Zhang, X.D., Macosko, C.W., and Davis, H.T., 1997, Effect of silicone surfactant on air flow of flexible polyurethane foams, ACS Symp. Ser., 669, 130–142.

[13] Marlina, 2010, Sintesis membran poliuretan dari karagenan dan 2,4 toylulene diisosianat, JRKL, 7 (3) 138–148.

[14] Sedayu, B.B., Cran, M.J., and Bigger, S.W., 2019, A review of property enhancement techniques for carrageenan-based films and coatings, Carbohydr. Polym., 216, 287–302.

[15] Hube, S., Eskafi, M., Hrafnkelsdóttir, K.F., Bjarnadóttir, B., Bjarnadóttir, M.A., Axelsdóttir, S., and Wu, B., 2020, Direct membrane filtration for wastewater treatment and resource recovery: A review, Sci. Total Environ., 710, 136375.

[16] Hoslett, J., Massara, T.M., Malamis, S., Ahmad, D., van den Boogaert, I., Katsou, E., Ahmad, B., Ghazal, H., Simons, S., Wrobel, L., and Jouhara, H., 2018, Surface water filtration using granular media and membranes: A review, Sci. Total Environ., 639, 1268–1282.

[17] Dlamini, D.S., Tesha, J.M., Vilakati, G.D., Mamba, B.B., Mishra, A.K., Thwala, J.M., and Li, J., 2020, A critical review of selected membrane- and powder-based adsorbents for water treatment: Sustainability and effectiveness, J. Cleaner Prod., 277, 123497.

[18] Li, R., and Shan, Z., 2020, Study on structure-induced heat transfer capabilities of waterborne polyurethane membranes, Colloids Surf., A, 598, 124879.

[19] Melnig, V., Apostu, M.O., Tura, V., and Ciobanu, C., 2005, Optimization of polyurethane membranes: Morphology and structure studies, J. Membr. Sci., 267, 58–67.

[20] Tekindal, M.A., Bayrak, H., Ozkaya, B., and Genc, Y., 2012, Box-Behnken experimental design in factorial experiments: The importance of bread for nutrition and health, Turk. J. Field Crops, 17 (2), 115–123.

[21] Khajeh, M., and Gharan, M., 2014, Separation of organic acid compounds from biological samples by zinc oxide nanoparticles–chitosan using genetic algorithm based on response surface methodology and artificial neural network, J. Chemom., 28 (7), 539–547.

[22] Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C., and Anderson-Cook, C.M., 2002, Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

[23] Khajeh, M., Kaykhaii, M., and Sharafi, A., 2013, Application of PSO-artificial neural network and response surface methodology for removal of methylene blue using silver nanoparticles from water samples, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 19 (5), 1624–1630.

[24] Khajeh, M., Moghaddam, M.G., Danesh, A.Z., and Khajeh, B., 2015, Response surface modeling of betulinic acid pre-concentration from medicinal plant samples by miniaturized homogenous liquid-liquid extraction and its determination by high performance liquid chromatography, Arabian J. Chem., 8 (3), 400–406.

[25] Das, B., Konwar, U., Mandal, M., and Karak, N., 2013, Sunflower oil based biodegradable hyperbranched polyurethane as a thin film material, Ind. Crops Prod., 44, 396–404.

[26] Chelladurai, S.J.S., Murugan, K., Ray, A.P., Upadhyaya, M., Narasimharaj, V., and Gnanasekaran, S., 2021, Optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology: A review, Mater. Today: Proc., 37 (2), 1310–1304.

[27] Khajeh, M., Sarafraz-Yazdi, A., and Moghadam, A.F., 2017, Modeling of solid-phase tea waste extraction for the removal of manganese and cobalt from water samples by using PSO-artificial neural network and response surface methodology, Arabian J. Chem., 10 (Suppl. 2), S1663–S1673.

[28] Mäkelä, M., 2017, Experimental design and response surface methodology in energy applications: A tutorial review, Energy Convers. Manage., 151, 630–640.

[29] Zhao, Z., Cuéllar-Bermúdez, S., Ilyas, A., Muylaert, K., and Vankelecom, I.F.J., 2020, Optimization of negatively charged polysulfone membranes for concentration and purification of extracellular polysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis using the response surface methodology, Sep. Purif. Technol., 252, 117385.

[30] Zhang, F., Liu, W., Liang, L., Liu, C., Wang, S., Shi, H., Xie, Y., Yang, M., and Pi, K., 2020, Applications of hydrophobic α,ω-bis(amino)-terminated polydimethylsiloxane-graphene oxide in enhancement of anti-corrosion ability of waterborne polyurethane, Colloids Surf., A, 600, 124981.

[31] Marlina, Saiful, Saleha, S., and Nurman, S., 2017, 2017, Synthesis and characterization new polyurethane membrane from hydroxylated rubber seed oil, Orient. J. Chem., 33 (1), 199–206.

[32] Ghadimi, A., Gharibi, R., Yeganeh, H., and Sadatnia, B., 2019, Ionic liquid tethered PEG-based polyurethane-siloxane membranes for efficient CO2/CH4 separation, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 102, 524–535.

[33] Wu, J., Wang, C., Xiao, Y., Mu, C., and Lin, W., 2020, Fabrication of water-resistance and durable antimicrobial adhesion polyurethane coating containing weakly amphiphilic poly(isobornyl acrylate) side chains, Prog. Org. Coat., 147, 105812.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.63649

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1305 | views : 612


Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.