Simple Preparations and Characterizations of Activated-Carbon- Clothes from Palm-Kernel-Shell for Ammonia Vapor Adsorption and Skim-Latex-Odor Removal

Muhammad Adlim(1*), Ratu Fazlia Inda Rahmayani(2), Fitri Zarlaida(3), Latifah Hanum(4), Maily Rizki(5), Nurul Ummi Manatillah(6), Omar Muktaridha(7)

(1) Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Science, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(2) Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(3) Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(4) Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(5) Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(6) Chemistry Department, FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(7) Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Science, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study explored a simple preparation and characterization of the activated carbon and cloth from the palm kernel shell and compared it to the commercial-water-filter-carbon specification. A new pyrolysis chamber that is easily scaled up using the palm kernel shell itself as a heat source was tested. Two different steps were compared: the alkaline activation process performed before or after the carbonation process in the palm-kernel-shell carbon preparation. The palm-kernel-shell activated carbons prepared with the current method fulfilled the standard quality of activated charcoal except for the ash content. The sequencing step of the preparation affected the adsorption capacity. Instead of the reverse sequence, the soaking palm kernel shells in NaOH before the carbonation process lead to a higher adsorption capacity. The carbon particle stability on the cloth surface was affected by both the adhesive concentration and its size. The ammonia adsorption capacity of activated carbon cloth (ACC) was between 1–4 mg ammonia per g stuck carbon. The preparation and the carbon type source on ACC affected the adsorption capacity. The ACC absorbed and lessened the skim latex odor vapor, nearly odorless depending on the ACC area and the volume of odor vapor.


agriculture; adsorption capacity; activation; carbonation; VOC

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Guthrie, S., Giles, S., Dunkerley, F., Tabaqchali H., Harsfield, A., Loppolo, B., and Manville, C., 2018, The impact of ammonia emissions from agriculture on biodiversity, RAND Corporation, Cambridge, UK.

[2] National Research Council (US) Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, 2008, Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 6, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

[3] Mokhtar, N.M., Lau, W.J., Ismail, A.F., and Veerasamy, D., 2015, Membrane distillation technology for treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia, Procedia CIRP, 26, 792–796.

[4] Dejchanchaiwong, R., Kumar, A., and Tekasakul, P., 2019, Performance and economic analysis of natural convection based rubber smoking room for rubber cooperatives in Thailand, Renewable Energy, 132, 233–242.

[5] Dejchanchaiwong, R., Tirawanichakul, Y., Tirawanichakul, S., Kumar, A., and Tekasakul, P., 2017, Techno-economic assessment of forced-convection rubber smoking room for rubber cooperatives, Energy, 137, 152–159.

[6] Anisuzzaman, S.M., Bono, A., Krishnaiah, D., and Tan, Y.Z., 2016, A study on dynamic simulation of phenol adsorption in activated carbon packed bed column, J. King Saud Univ. Eng. Sci., 28 (1), 47–55.

[7] Bertone, E., Chang, C., Thiel, P., and O’Halloran, K., 2018, Analysis and modelling of powdered activated carbon dosing for taste and odour removal, Water Res., 139, 321–328.

[8] Otulana, J.O., Oluwole, O.O., and Adeleke, M.B., 2016, A reactor plant for activated carbon production, Int. J. Novel Res. Eng. Sci., 2 (2), 20–26.

[9] Menya, E., Olupot, P.W., Storz, H., Lubwama, M., and Kiros, Y., 2018, Production and performance of activated carbon from rice husks for removal of natural organic matter from water: A review, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 129, 271–296.

[10] Mohammad Razi, M.A., Al-Gheethi, A., Al-Qaini, M., and Yousef, A., 2018, Efficiency of activated carbon from palm kernel shell for treatment of greywater, Arab J. Basic Appl. Sci., 25 (3), 103–110.

[11] Cukierman, A.L., 2013, Development and environmental applications of activated carbon cloths, Int. Scholarly Res. Not., 2013, 261523.

[12] Attia, N.F., Jung, M., Park, J., Jang, H., Lee, K., and Oh, H., 2020, Flexible nanoporous activated carbon cloth for achieving high H2, CH4, and CO2 storage capacities and selective CO2/CH4 separation, Chem. Eng. J., 379, 122367.

[13] Tripathi, N.K., Singh, V.V., Sathe, M., Thakare, V.B., and Singh, B., 2018, Activated carbon fabric: An adsorbent material for chemical protective clothing, Def. Sci. J., 68 (1), 83–90.

[14] Eza, T.S.M., Wan Ahmad, W.Y., Omar, K., and Ahmad, M.N., 2014, Effectiveness of activated carbon produced from coconut and palm shells as anti-odour on textile fabrics, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 39, 190–195.

[15] Ayinla, R.T., Dennis, J.O., Zaid, H.M., Sanusi, Y.K., Usman, F., and Adebayo, L.L., 2019, A review of technical advances of recent palm bio-waste conversion to activated carbon for energy storage, J. Cleaner Prod., 229, 1427–1442.

[16] Lelifajri, Nawi, M.A., Sabar, S., Supriatno, and Nawawi, W.I., 2018, Preparation of immobilized activated carbon-polyvinyl alcohol composite for the adsorptive removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, J. Water Process Eng., 25, 269–277.

[17] Da’na, E., and Awad, A., 2017, Regeneration of spent activated carbon obtained from home filtration system and applying it for heavy metals adsorption, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 5 (4), 3091–3099.

[18] Guo, H., Weber, R.J., and Nenes, A., 2017, High levels of ammonia do not raise fine particle pH sufficiently to yield nitrogen oxide-dominated sulfate production, Sci. Rep., 7 (1), 12109.

[19] Smeets, M.A.M., Bulsing, P.J., van Rooden, S., Steinmann, R., de Ru, J.A., Ogink, N.W.M., van Thriel, C., and Dalton, P.H., 2007, Odor and irritation thresholds for ammonia: a comparison between static and dynamic olfactometry, Chem. Senses, 32 (1), 11–20.

[20] Ayawei, N., Ebelegi, A.N., and Wankasi, D., 2017, Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms, J. Chem., 2017, 3039817.

[21] Kul, A.R., and Caliskan, N., 2009, Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the adsorption of Zn(II) ions onto natural and activated kaolinites, Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 27 (1), 85–105.

[22] Juntarachat, N., Bouvier, N., Lepoutre, J.P., Roland, A., Sainte-Beuve. J., Granet, F., Salmon, J.M., Rigou, P., and Chalier, P., 2013, Identification by GC-O and GC-MS of new odorous compounds in natural rubber, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 130 (3), 1863–1872.

[23] Dada, A.O., Inyinbor, A.A., and Oluyori, A.P., 2012, Preparation and characterization of activated carbon using coconut and palm kernel shells, Sci. Focus, 17 (2), 188–197.

[24] Arami-Niya, A., Wan Daud, W.M.A., Mjalli, F.S., Abnisa, F., and Shafeeyan, M.S., 2012, Production of microporous palm shell-based activated carbon for methane adsorption: Modeling and optimization using response surface methodology, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 90 (6), 776–784.

[25] Sumathi, S., Bhatia, S., Lee, K.T., and Mohamed, A.R., 2009, Optimization of microporous palm shell activated carbon production for flue gas desulphurization: Experimental and statistical studies, Bioresour. Technol., 100 (4), 614–1621.

[26] Rashidi, N.A., and Yusup, S., 2017, A review on recent technological advancement in the activated carbon production from oil palm wastes, Chem. Eng. J., 314, 277–290.

[27] Wilcox, J., 2012, “Adsorption” in Carbon Capture, Springer, New York, 115–176.

[28] Thommes, M., Kaneko, K., Neimark, A.V., Olivier, J.P., Rodriguez-Reinoso, F., Rouquerol, J., and Sing, K.S.W., 2015, Physisorption of gases, with special reference to the evaluation of surface area and pore size distribution (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem., 87 (9-10), 1051–1069.

[29] Nandiyanto, A.B.N., Girsang, G.C.S., Maryanti, R., Ragadhita, R., Anggraeni, S., Fauzi, F.M., Sakinah, P., Astuti, A.P., Usdiyana, D., Fiandini, M., Dewi, M.W., and Al-Obaidi, A.S.M., 2020, Isotherm adsorption characteristics of carbon microparticles prepared from pineapple peel waste, Commun. Sci. Technol., 5 (1), 31–39.

[30] Rodrigues, C.C., de Moraes, D., da Nóbrega, S.W., and Barboza, M.G., 2007, Ammonia adsorption in a fixed bed of activated carbon, Bioresour. Technol., 98 (4), 886–891.

[31] Hidayu, A.R., and Muda, N., 2016, Preparation and characterization of impregnated activated carbon from palm kernel shell and coconut shell for CO2 capture, Procedia Eng., 148, 106–113.

[32] Ademiluyi, F.T., and David-West, E.O., 2012, Effect of chemical activation on the adsorption of heavy metals using activated carbons from waste materials, Int. Scholarly Res. Not., 2012, 674209.

[33] Zhang, S., Wang, W.C., Li, F.X., and Yu, J.Y., 2013, Swelling and dissolution of cellulose in NaOH aqueous solvent systems, Cellul. Chem. Technol., 47 (9-10), 671–679.

[34] Hsu, D., Lu, C., Pang, T., Wang, Y., and Wang, G., 2019, Adsorption of ammonium nitrogen from aqueous solution on chemically activated biochar prepared from sorghum distillers grain, Appl. Sci., 9 (23), 5249.

[35] Kecili, R., and Hussain, C.M., 2018, “Mechanism of adsorption on nanomaterials” in Nanomaterials in Chromatography, Eds. Hussain, C.M., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 89–115.

[36] Long, X.L., Cheng, H., Xin, Z.L., Xiao, W.D., Li, W., and Yuan, W.K., 2008, Adsorption of ammonia on activated carbon from aqueous solutions, Environ. Prog., 27 (2), 225–233.

[37] Kamarulzaman, N.H., Le-Minh, N., and Stuetz, R.M., 2019, Identification of VOCs from natural rubber by different headspace techniques coupled using GC-MS, Talanta, 191, 535–544.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1815 | views : 1012

Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.