Phytochemical Analysis of Bioactive Extracts and Seed Oil of Three Euphorbia Species from Algerian Flora by LC-MS and GC-MS

Nadia Toudert(1), Farida Zakkad(2), Noureddine Dadda(3), Abdelouaheb Djilani(4), Amadou Dicko(5), Salah Eddine Djilani(6*)

(1) Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, El Chadli Ben Djedid University, El Tarf, Algeria
(2) Laboratory of Synthesis and Organic Biocatalysis, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria
(3) Laboratory of Synthesis and Organic Biocatalysis, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria
(4) Laboratory of Synthesis and Organic Biocatalysis, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria
(5) Université de Lorraine, UR-AFPA (Unité de Recherche Animal et Fonctionnalité des Produits Animaux), France
(6) Laboratory of Synthesis and Organic Biocatalysis, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria
(*) Corresponding Author


Euphorbia species possess pharmacological properties that have been widely used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, three plants belonging to the Euphorbia genus growing in North-East of Algeria were studied. The phenolic contents were identified using LC-MS, while the fatty acid composition of their fixed oils was determined with GC-MS. The quantification of the total condensed tannins and the leaves' entire anthocyanin content were performed using photometric methods. The main constituents of the polyphenolic compounds identified by LC-MS were ascorbic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids. The oil yield of the seeds of E. terracina, E. biumbellata, and E. dendroides was 17.48%, 18.5%, and 20.05%, respectively. Quantitative analyses of these oils using GC-MS showed variations in the species' fatty acid constituents' concentrations and compositions. Besides, the phytochemical screening results showed that E. terracina possessed a high amount of tannin and anthocyanin content compared with other studied plants.


Euphorbia; polyphenols; oil; LC-MS; CG-MS

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Bagewadi, Z.K., Siddanagouda, R.S., and Baligar, P.G., 2014, Phytoconstituents investigation by LC-MS and evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-pyretic properties of Cynodon dactylon, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 5(7), 2874–2889.

[2] Savithramma, N., Rao, M.L., and Ankanna, S., 2012, Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Some Important Medicinal Plants, Int. J. Ayurveda Res., 2 (1), 139–145.

[3] Azmathullah, N.M., Sheriff, M.A., and Mohideen, A.K.S., 2011, Phytochemical screening of Calotropis procera flower extracts and their bio-control potential on Culex sp. mosquito larvae and pupae, Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Arch., 2 (6), 1718–1721.

[4] Ghout, A., Zellagui, A., Gherraf, N., Demirtas, I., Sahin, Y.A., Boukhenaf, M., Lahouel, M., Nieto, G., and Akkal, S., 2018, Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of two extracts of the plant species Euphorbia dendroides L., Medicines, 5 (2), 36.

[5] Saleem, U., Hussain, K., Ahmad, M., Bukhari, N.I., Malik, A., and Ahmad, B., 2014, Report: Physicochemical and phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia helioscopia (L.), Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 27 (3), 577–585.

[6] Titilope, K.K., Rashidat, E.A., Christiana, O.C., Kehinde, E.R., Omobolaji, J.N., and Olajide, A.J., 2012, In-vitro antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia hirta against some clinical Isolates, Agric. Biol. J. North Am., 3 (4), 169–174.

[7] Özbilgin, S., and Saltan Citoğlu, G., 2012, Uses of some Euphorbia species in traditional medicine in Turkey and their biological activities, Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 9 (2), 241–256.

[8] Qaisar, M, Gilani, S.N., Farooq, S., Rauf, A., Naz, R., Shaista, and Pervees, S., 2012, Preliminary comparative phytochemical screening of Euphorbia species, Am.-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 12 (8), 1056–1060.

[9] Sun, Y.X., and Liu, J.C., 2011, Chemical constituents and biological activities of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, Chem. Biodivers., 8 (7), 1205–1214.

[10] Badshah, L., and Hussain, F., 2011, People preferences and use of local medicinal flora in District Tank Pakistan, J. Med. Plants Res., 5 (1), 22–29.

[11] Sharma, V., Janmeda, P., and Singh, L., 2011, A review on Euphorbia neriifolia (Sehund), Spatula DD, 1 (2), 107–111.

[12] Okonkwo, C.O., and Ohaeri, O.C., 2018, Essential oils from the leaves of Euphorbia Mili exert insecticidal activity through disruption in ionic composition, IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci., 13 (4), 46–53.

[13] Jannet, S.B., Hymery, N., Bourgou, S., Jdey, A., Lachaal, M., Magné, C., and Ksouri, R., 2017, Antioxidant and selective anticancer activities of two Euphorbia species in human acute myeloid leukemia, Biomed. Pharmacother., 90, 375–385.

[14] El-Amier, Y.A., Al-Hadithy, O.N., Abdulhadi, H.L., and Fayed, E.M., 2016, Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia terracina L. from deltaic mediterranean coast, Egypt, J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 2 (2), 83–85.

[15] Wafa, G., Amadou, D., Larbi, K.M., and Héla, E.F.O., 2014, Larvicidal activity, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant properties of different parts of five populations of Ricinus communis L., Ind. Crops Prod., 56, 43–51.

[16] Sutharut, J., and Sudarat, J., 2012, Total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of germinated colored rice, Int. Food Res. J., 19 (1), 215-221.

[17] Ahmed, D., Khan, M.M., and Saeed, R., 2015, Comparative analysis of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of methanolic, hexanic and aqueous extracts from Adiantum caudatum leaves, Antioxidants, 4 (2), 394–409.

[18] Jan, S., Khan, M.R., Rashid, U., and Bokhari, J., 2013, Assessment of antioxidant potential, total phenolics and flavonoids of different solvent fractions of Monotheca buxifolia fruit, Osong Public Health Res. Perspect., 4 (5), 246–254.

[19] Cunniff, P., 1995, Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, US.

[20] Raharjo, T.J., Nurliana, L., and Mastjeh, S., 2011, Phospholipids from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch.) Poir) seed kernel oil and their fatty acid composition, Indones. J. Chem., 11 (1), 48–52.

[21] Zeghad, F., Djilani, S.E., Djilani, A., and Dikou, A., 2016, Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Euphorbia species, Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 13 (1), 47–56.

[22] Elhassan, G.O.M., Adhikari, A., Abdalla, O.M., Shukrulla, A., Khalid, A., Choudhary, M.I., Mesaik, M.A., and Yagi, S., 2015, Chemical constituents of Euphorbia polyacantha Boiss. and their immunomodulatory properties, Rec. Nat. Prod., 9 (1), 146–152.

[23] Vijayabaskar, P., and Shiyamala, V., 2012, Antioxidant properties of seaweed polyphenol from Turbinaria ornate (Turner) J. Agardh, 1848, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2 (1), S90–S98.

[24] Agboola, J.B., Abubakre, O.K., Mudiare, E., Adeyemi, M.B., and Hassan, S.B., 2015, Physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of some selected Nigerian vegetable oils for quenching medium, Br. J. Appl. Sci. Technol., 8 (3), 246–253.

[25] Youssef, M.K.E., Eshak, N.S., and Hana, R.S., 2013, Physicochemical characteristics, nutrient content and fatty acid composition of Nigella sativa oil and sesame oil, Food Public Health, 3 (6), 309–314.

[26] Bello, M.O., Akindele, T.L., Adeoye, D.O., and Oladimejir, A.O., 2011, Physicochemical properties and fatty acids profile of seed oil of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F., Int. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 11 (06), 9–14.

[27] Kumar, P.P., Kumaravel, S., and Lalitha, C., 2010, Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo, Afr. J. Biochem. Res., 4 (7), 191–195.

[28] Okwu, D.E., and Ighodaro, B.U., 2010, GC-MS evaluation of bioactive compounds and antibacterial activity of the oil fraction from the leaves of Alstonia boonei De Wild, Der Pharma Chem., 2 (1), 261–272.

[29] Vankar, P.S., and Srivastava, J., 2010, Evaluation of anthocyanin content in red and blue flowers, Int. J. Food Eng., 6 (4), 7.

[30] Mohamed, A.H.H., Hegazy, M.E.F., Moustafa, M.F.M., El-Sayed, M.A., Abdel-Farid, I.B., Esmail, A.M., Abdelrazik, M.H., Mohamed, N.S., Nenaah, G., Mohamed, T.A., Shahat, A.A., Karchesy, J., Matsuda, H., and Pare, P.W., 2012, Euphorbia helioscopia: Chemical constituents and biological activities, Int. J. Phytopharmacol., 3 (1), 78–90.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2825 | views : 2272

Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.