Properties of Biodegradable Polymer from Terrestrial Mushroom for Potential Enhanced Oil Recovery

Tengku Amran Tengku Mohd(1*), Shareena Fairuz Abdul Manaf(2), Munawirah Abd Naim(3), Muhammad Shafiq Mat Shayuti(4), Mohd Zaidi Jaafar(5)

(1) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(4) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(5) School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Polymer flooding could enhance the oil recovery by increasing the viscosity of water, thus, improving the mobility control and sweep efficiency. It is essential to explore natural sources of polymer, which is biologically degradable and negligible to environmental risks. This research aims to produce a biodegradable polymer from terrestrial mushroom, analyze the properties of the polymer and investigate the oil recovery from polymer flooding. Polysaccharide biopolymer was extracted from mushroom and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), while the polymer viscosity was investigated using an automated microviscometer. The oil recovery tests were conducted at room temperature using a sand pack model. It was found that polymer viscosity increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases when increase in temperature, salinity, and concentration of divalent ions. The oil recovery tests showed that a higher polymer concentration of 3000 ppm had recovered more oil with an incremental recovery of 25.8% after waterflooding, while a polymer concentration of 1500 pm obtained incremental 22.2% recovery of original oil in place (OOIP). The oil recovery from waterflooding was approximately 25.4 and 24.2% of the OOIP, respectively. Therefore, an environmentally friendly biopolymer was successfully extracted, which is potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application, but it will lose its viscosity performance at certain reservoir conditions.


biopolymer; mushroom; polymer flooding; viscosity; enhanced oil recovery

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Bataweel, M.A., and Nasr-El-Din, H.A., 2012, Rheological study for surfactant-polymer and novel alkali-surfactant-polymer solutions, North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, Egypt, 20-22 February 2012.

[2] Seright, R., 2010, Potential for polymer flooding reservoirs with viscous oils, SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 13 (04), 730–740.

[3] Green, D.W., and Willhite, G.P., 1998, Enhanced Oil Recovery, SPE Textbook Series, Volume 6, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, Texas.

[4] Niu, Y., Jian, O., Zhu, Z., Wang, G., Sun, G., and Shi, L., 2001, Research on hydrophobically associating water soluble polymer used for EOR, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, 13-16 February.

[5] Achim, N., Alias, N.H., Ghazali, N.A., Rodhi, M.N.M, Mohd, T.A.T., and Yahya, E., 2015, Polymer gelled technology to improve sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery: A literature review, Adv. Mater. Res., 1113, 690–694.

[6] Mohd, T.A.T., Alias, N., Ghazali, N.A., Yahya, E., Sauki, A., Azizi, A., and Yusof, N.M., 2015, Mobility investigation of nanoparticle-stabilized carbon dioxide foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Adv. Mater. Res., 1119, 90–95.

[7] Mohd, T.A.T., Shukor, M.A., Ghazali, N.A., Alias, N., Yahya, E., Azizi, A., Shahruddin, M.Z., and Ramlee, N.A., 2014, Relationship between foamability and nanoparticle concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Appl. Mech. Mater., 548-549, 67–71.

[8] Azizi, A., Husin, H., Ghazali, N.A., Khairudin, M.K., Sauki, A., Alias, N.H., Mohd, T.A.T., 2015, Nanoparticles stabilized carbon dioxide foams in sandstone and limestone reservoir, Adv. Mater. Res., 1119, 170–174.

[9] Mohd, T.A.T., Bakar, N.F.A., Awang, N., and Talib, A.A., 2018, Aqueous foams stabilized with silica nanoparticle and alpha olefin sulfonates surfactant, J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 12 (3), 3759–3770.

[10] Azmi, N.S.M., Roslina, N.R., Mohd, T.A.T., Tan, H.L., and Bakar, N.F.A., 2019, Diffusion coefficient and interfacial tension with addition of silica nanoparticles in CO2-surfactant-water-hexane for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using molecular dynamic simulation, Key Eng. Mater., 797, 375–384.

[11] Azmi, N.S.M., Bakar, N.F.A., Mohd, T.A.T., and Azizi, A., 2020, Molecular dynamics simulation on CO2 foam system with addition of SiO2 nanoparticles at various sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations and elevated temperatures for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application, Comput. Mater. Sci., 184, 109937.

[12] Mohd, T.A.T., Jaafar, M.Z., Rasol, A.A.A., and Ali, J., 2017, Review: A new prospect of streaming potential measurement in alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding, Chem. Eng. Trans., 56, 1183–1188.

[13] Mohd, T.A.T., Jaafar, M.Z., Rasol, A.A.A., and Hamid, M.F., 2017, Measurement of streaming potential in downhole application: An insight for enhanced oil recovery monitoring, MATEC Web Conf., 87, 03002.

[14] Mohd, T.A.T., Taib, N.M., Adzmi, A.F., Ab Lah, N.K.I.N., Sauki, A., and Jaafar, M.Z., 2018, Evaluation of polymer properties for potential selection in enhanced oil recovery, Chem. Eng. Trans., 65, 343–348.

[15] Al Hashmi, A.R., Al Maamari, R.S., Al Shabibi, I.S., Mansoor, A.M., Zaitoun, A., and Al Sharji, H.H., 2013, Rheology and mechanical degradation of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide during flow through capillaries, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 105, 100–106.

[16] Zhao, H., Luo, F., Hou, J., Zhang, X., and Cao, L., 2010, Study on the potential risk appraisal method in polymer flooding, SPE Hydrocarbon Economics and Evaluation Symposium, Dallas, Texas, USA, 8-9 March 2010.

[17] Kaminsky, R.D., Wattenbarger, R.C., Szafranski, R.C., and Coutee, A., 2007, Guidelines for polymer flooding evaluation and development, International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, U.A.E., 4-6 December 2007.

[18] Alias, N.H., Zulkifli, M.S., Manaf, S.F.A., Yahya, E., Ghazali, N.A., and Mohd, T.A.T., 2014, Saccharomyces cerevisiae from baker’s yeast for lower oil viscosity and beneficial metabolite to improve oil recovery: An overview, Appl. Mech. Mater., 625, 522–525.

[19] Yahya, E., Alias, N.H., Mohd, T.A.T., Ghazali, N.A., and Ariffin, T.S.T., 2015, Flooding with biopolymer from microbes derived from mushroom and cabbage to enhance sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery, Adv. Mater. Res., 1113, 492–497.

[20] Ojo, V.O., Onyekonwu, M.O., Ogolo, N.A., and Ubani, C., 2013, Effect of viscosity of alkaline/surfactant/polymer on enhanced oil recovery in heterogenous sands, SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos, Nigeria, 5-7 August 2013.

[21] Ikeagwu, C., and Samuel, A., 2015, The study of local polymers on enhanced oil recovery, Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 7 (6), 48–55.

[22] Osuji, C., and Onyenkonwu, M., 2012, Using alkaline-surfactant-polymer to improve oil recovery, Thesis, Department of Petroleum and Gas, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[23] Ade, E., and Onyekonwu, M.O., 2012, Experimental study of enhancing oil recovery using local polymers, Thesis, Department of Petroleum and Gas, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[24] Ogolo, N.A., Ogiriki, S., Onyiri, V., Nwosu, T., and Onyenkonwu, M.O., 2015, Performance of foreign and local agents for enhanced oil recovery of Nigerian crude, SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos, Nigeria, 4-6 August 2015.

[25] Ajabuego, I., and Onyekonwu, M., 2012, Enhanced oil recovery using local polymer, Thesis, Department of Petroleum and Gas, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[26] Gbonhinbor, J.R., and Onyekonwu, M.O., 2015, Experimental and simulation study on aqueous protein to improve oil recovery, Int. J. Pet. Eng., 1 (4), 271–289.

[27] Gao, C., 2016, Application of a novel biopolymer to enhance oil recovery, J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., 6 (4), 749–753.

[28] Villares, A., García-Lafuente, A., Guillamón, E., and Mateo-Vivaracho, L., 2013, Separation and characterization of the structural features of macromolecular carbohydrates from wild edible mushrooms, Bioact. Carbohydr. Dietary Fibre, 2 (1), 15–21.

[29] Cumpstey, I., 2013, Chemical modification of polysaccharides, ISRN Org. Chem., 2013, 417672.

[30] Yadav, H., and Karthikeyan, C., 2019, “Natural polysaccharides: Structural features and properties” in Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery, Eds. Maiti, S., and Jana, S., Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK.

[31] Ndjouenkeu, R., Goycoolea, F.M., Morrisa, E.R., and Akingbala, J.O., 1995, Rheology of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut (Irvingia gabonesis) polysaccharides, Carbohydr. Polym., 29 (3), 263–269.

[32] Ihebuzor, N., Onyenkonwu, M.O., 2012, An experimental research on enhanced oil recovery using local polymers, Thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[33] Ayirala, S.C., Uehara-Nagamine, E., Matzakos, A.N., Chin, R.W., Doe, P.H., and van den Hoek, P.J., 2010, A designer water process for offshore low salinity and polymer flooding applications, SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 24-28 April 2010.

[34] Algharaib, M.K., Alajmi, A.F.F., and Gharbi, R., 2011, Enhancing recovery in high salinity oil reservoirs through optimized polymer flood, International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 15-17 November 2011.

[35] Yang, F., Wang, D., Wang, G., Sui, X., Liu, W., and Kan, C., 2006, Study on high-concentration polymer flooding to further enhance oil recovery, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September 2006.

[36] Ward, J.S., and Martin, F.D., 1981, Prediction of viscosity for partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solutions in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, SPE J., 21(05), 623–631.

[37] Al Yousef, Z.A., Almobarky, M.A., and Schechter, D.S., 2019, Surfactant and a mixture of surfactant and nanoparticles to stabilize CO2/brine foam, control gas mobility, and enhance oil recovery, J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., 10 (2), 439–445.

[38] Romero-Zeron, L., 2012, “Advances in enhanced oil recovery” in Introduction to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Process and Bioremediation of Oil Contaminants Sites, Eds. Romero-Zeron, L., IntechOpen, Rijeka.

[39] Kotlar, H.K., Selle, O., and Torsaeter, O., 2007, Enhanced oil recovery by COMB flow: Polymer floods revitalized, International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, 28 February-2 March 2007.

[40] Agi, A., Junin, R., Gbonhinbor, J., and Onyekonwu, M., 2018, Natural polymer flow behaviour in porous media for enhanced oil recovery applications: A review, J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., 8 (4), 1349–1362.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1818 | views : 1658

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.