Synthesis, Characterization, and Stability Evaluation of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Starch-Chitosan/Tripolyphosphate Matrices

Agnes Dyah Novitasari Lestari(1), Dwi Siswanta(2), Ronny Martien(3), Mudasir Mudasir(4*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Papua, Jl. Gunung Salju, Amban, Manokwari 98314, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of β-carotene encapsulated in the blending matrices of starch (native and hydrolyzed starch)-chitosan/TPP (tripolyphosphate) by examining the effects of starch-to-chitosan weight ratio, β-carotene addition level, and TPP addition level on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC); and to evaluate their storage stability. The encapsulation was done by the dropwise addition of ethanolic β-carotene dispersion into the blending matrices. The results of XRD analysis show that the encapsulation process significantly decreases the crystallinity of the starches, chitosan, and β-carotene. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images reveal that the encapsulation products form irregular lumps. The EE and LC tend to increase with the increase in polymer fraction of matrices and β-carotene addition level, and with the decrease in TPP addition level. The addition of chitosan and the replacement of native starch by hydrolyzed starch tend to increase storage stability of β-carotene encapsulated in the starch matrix because chitosan can act as a good film-forming and antioxidant, while hydrolyzed starch contains amylose amylopectin with a short chain which is better in film-forming ability. These results promote the use of the hydrolyzed starch-chitosan/TPP as a matrix to enhance the stability β-carotene via encapsulations.


starch; chitosan; TPP; β-carotene; encapsulation

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Chávarri, M., Marañón, I., and Villarán, M.C., 2012, “Encapsulation technology to protect probiotic bacteria” in Probiotics, Eds. Rigobelo, E.C., IntechOpen, Rijeka, 501–540.

[2] Nedovic, V., Kalusevic, A., Manojlovic, V., Levic, S., and Bugarski, B., 2011, An overview of encapsulation technologies for food applications, Procedia Food Sci., 1, 1806–1815.

[3] Joye, I.J., and McClements, D.J., 2014, Biopolymer-based nanoparticles and microparticles: Fabrication, characterization, and application, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 19 (5), 417–427.

[4] Gul, K., Tak, A., Singh, A.K., Singh, P., Yousuf, B., and Wani, A.A., 2015, Chemistry, encapsulation, and health benefits of β-carotene - A review, Cogent Food Agric., 1 (1), 1018696.

[5] Yuan, Y., Gao, Y., Zhao, J., and Mao, L., 2008, Characterization and stability evaluation of β-carotene nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization under various emulsifying conditions, Food Res. Int., 41 (1), 61–68.

[6] Gu, L., Su, Y., Zhang, M., Chang, C., Li, J., McClements, D.J., and Yang, Y., 2017, Protection of β-carotene from chemical degradation in emulsion-based delivery systems using antioxidant interfacial complexes: Catechin-egg white protein conjugates, Food Res. Int., 96, 84–93.

[7] Yang, J., Han, S., Zheng, H., Dong, H., and Liu, J., 2015, Preparation and application of micro/nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides, Carbohydr. Polym., 123, 53–66.

[8] Fathi, M., Martín, Á., and McClements, D.J., 2014, Nanoencapsulation of food ingredients using carbohydrate based delivery systems, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 39 (1), 18–39.

[9] Fouladi, E., and Nafchi, A.M., 2014, Effects of acid-hydrolysis and hydroxypropylation on functional properties of sago starch, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 68, 251–257.

[10] Loksuwan, J., 2007, Characteristics of microencapsulated β-carotene formed by spray drying with modified tapioca starch, native tapioca starch and maltodextrin, Food Hydrocolloids, 21 (5-6), 928–935.

[11] Spada, J.C., Noreña, C.P.Z., Marczak, L.D.F., and Tessaro, I.C., 2012, Study on the stability of β-carotene microencapsulated with pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seeds) starch, Carbohydr. Polym., 89 (4), 1166–1173.

[12] Subramanian, S.B., Francis, A.P., and Devasena, T., 2014, Chitosan-starch nanocomposite particles as a drug carrier for the delivery of bis-desmethoxy curcumin analog, Carbohydr. Polym., 114, 170–178.

[13] Perez, J.J., and Francois, N.J., 2016, Chitosan-starch beads prepared by ionotropic gelation as potential matrices for controlled release of fertilizers, Carbohydr. Polym., 148, 134–142.

[14] Peng, H., Xiong, H., Li, J., Xie, M., Liu, Y., Bai, C., and Chen, L., 2010, Vanillin cross-linked chitosan microspheres for controlled release of resveratrol, Food Chem., 121 (1), 23–28.

[15] de Vos, P., Faas, M.M., Spasojevic, M., and Sikkema, J., 2010, Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components, Int. Dairy J., 20 (4), 292–302.

[16] Raguzzoni, J.C., Delgadillo, I., and Lopes da Silva, J.A., 2016, Influence of a cationic polysaccharide on starch functionality, Carbohydr. Polym., 150, 369–377.

[17] Bajer, D., and Kaczmarek, H., 2010, Study of the influence OV UV radiation on biodegradable blends based on chitosan and starch, Prog. Chem. Appl. Chitin Deriv., 15, 17–24.

[18] Lawal, O.S., and Adebowale, K.O., 2005, Physicochemical characteristics and thermal properties of chemically modified jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) starch, Carbohydr. Polym., 60 (3), 331–341.

[19] Lestari, A.D.N., Mudasir, Siswanta, D., and Martien, R., 2018, Preliminary study on microprecipitation of β-carotene in starch/chitosan/TPP (tripolyphosphate) matrices: Effects of weight ratio of starch/chitosan, AIP Conf. Proc., 2049, 020045.

[20] Rampino, A., Borgogna, M., Bellich, B., Blasi, P., Virgilio, F., and Cesàro, A., 2016, Chitosan-pectin hybrid nanoparticles prepared by coating and blending techniques, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 84, 37–45.

[21] Kim, J.Y., and Huber, K.C., 2016, Preparation and characterization of corn starch-β-carotene composites, Carbohydr. Polym., 136, 394–401.

[22] Rutz, J.K., Borges, C.D., Zambiazi, R.C., da Rosa, C.G., and da Silva, M.M., 2016, Elaboration of microparticles of carotenoids from natural and synthetic sources for applications in food, Food Chem., 202, 324–333.

[23] Chu, B.S., Ichikawa, S., Kanafusa, S., and Nakajima, M., 2007, Preparation and characterization of β-carotene nanodispersions prepared by solvent displacement technique, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (16), 6754–6760.

[24] Ferranti, V., Marchais, H., Chabenat, C., Orecchioni, A.M., and Lafont, O., 1999, Primidone-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules: Incorporation efficiency and in vitro release profiles, Int. J. Pharm., 193 (1), 107–111.

[25] Chen, L., McClements, D.J., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., Jin, Z., and Tian, Y., 2019, Impact of amylose content on structural changes and oil absorption of fried maize starches, Food Chem., 287, 28–37.

[26] Ulbrich, M., Beresnewa-Seekamp, T., Walther, W., and Flöter, E., 2016, Acid-thinned corn starch-impact of modification parameters on molecular characteristics and functional properties, Starch/Stärke, 68, 399–409.

[27] Hasani, S., Ojagh, S.M., and Ghorbani, M., 2018, Nanoencapsulation of lemon essential oil in Chitosan-Hicap system. Part 1: Study on its physical and structural characteristics, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 115, 143–151.

[28] Hsin, W.L., Sheng, Y.J., Lin, S.Y., and Tsao, H.K., 2004, Surface tension increment due to solute addition, Phys. Rev. E, 69 (31), 1–8.

[29] Blanchette, F., Messio, L., and Bush, J.W.M., 2009, The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence, Phys. Fluids, 21 (7), 072107.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 891 | views : 703

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.