Imprinted Zeolite Modified Carbon Paste Electrode as a Selective Sensor for Blood Glucose Analysis by Potentiometry

Miratul Khasanah(1*), Alfa Akustia Widati(2), Usreg Sri Handajani(3), Muji Harsini(4), Bahrotul Ilmiah(5), Irene Dinda Oktavia(6)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Jl. Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno (MERR), Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste (carbon paste-IZ) electrode had been developed as a sensor to analyze blood glucose content by potentiometry. The used zeolite was Lynde Type A (LTA) that synthesized with a mole ratio of Na2O, Al2O3, SiO2 and H2O of 4:1:1.8:270, respectively while non-imprinted zeolite was prepared with a mole ratio of glucose/Si of 0.0306. Glucose was then extracted from the zeolite framework using hot water (80 °C) to produce imprinted zeolite (IZ). The carbon paste-IZ electrode prepared from activated carbon, paraffin pastilles, and IZ with a mass ratio of 5:4:1 showed the best performance. The modified electrode demonstrated the measurement range of 10–4-10–2 M, the Nernst factor of 29.55 mV/decade, the response time less than 120 s, and the detection limit of 5.62 × 10–5 M. Ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea and creatinine did not interfere on the glucose analysis by potentiometry. Comparison test with spectrophotometry showed an accuracy of (90.7 ± 1.4)% (n = 5), while the application of the electrode to analyze five spiked serum samples showed recovery of (92.2 ± 1.3)% (n = 5). The electrode was stable for up to 9 weeks (168 times usage). Based on its performance, the developed electrode can be applied to analyze glucose in human serum sample and recommended for used in the medical field.


blood glucose; carbon paste electrode; imprinted zeolite; potentiometric sensor

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Tonyushkina, K., and Nichols, J.H., 2009, Glucose meters: A review of technical challenges to obtaining accurate results, J. Diabetes Sci. Technol., 4 (3), 971–980.

[2] Kee, J.L., Hayes, E.R., and McCuistion, L.E., 2015, Pharmacology: A Patient Centered Nursing Process Approach, 8th Ed., Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis.

[3] Bishop, D.K., La Belle, J.T., Vossler, S.R., Patel, D.R., and Cook, C.B., 2010, A disposable tear glucose biosensor-Part 1: Design and concept testing, J. Diabetes Sci. Technol., 4 (2), 299-306.

[4] Yoo, E.H., and Lee, S.Y., 2010, Glucose biosensors: An overview of use in clinical practice, Sensors, 10 (5), 4558–4576.

[5] Galant, A.L., Kaufman, R.C., and Wilson, J.D., 2015, Glucose: Detection and analysis, Food Chem., 188, 149–160.

[6] Odden, J., 2011, Determination of D-glucose in human blood serum using HPLC-PED, Concordia Coll. J. Anal. Chem., 2, 58–66.

[7] Kamal, A.M., and Klein, P., 2011, Determination of sugar in honey by liquid chromatography, biomedical, and applied sciences, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 18 (1), 17–21.

[8] Çiftçi, H., Tamer, U., Teker, M.Ş., and Pekmez, N.Ö., 2013, An enzyme free potentiometric detection of glucose based on a conducting polymer poly (3-aminophenyl boronic acid-co-3-octylthiophene), Electrochim. Acta, 90, 358–365.

[9] Khasanah, M., Harsini, M., and Widati, A.A., 2013, Imprinting zeolite-modified glassy carbon as a voltammetric sensor for uric acid, Indones. J. Chem., 13 (2), 108–113.

[10] Heidari, Z., and Masrournia, M., 2018, A novel modified carbon paste electrode for the determination of chromium(III) in water, J. Anal. Chem., 78 (8), 824–831.

[11] Khasanah, M., Handajani, U.S., Widati, A.A., Abdulloh, A., and Rindarti, R.R., 2018, Construction and performance of creatinine selective electrode based on carbon paste-imprinting zeolite, Anal. Bioanal. Electrochem., 10 (4), 429–438.

[12] Athiroh, A., Fadillah, T., Damayanti, D.F., Abdulloh, A., Widati, A.A., and Khasanah, M., 2019, Carbon paste electrode modified imprinted zeolite as a selective sensor for creatine analysis by potentiometry, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 217, 012003.

[13] Rahmadhani, S., Setiyanto, H., and Zulfikar, M.A., 2018, Fabrication of carbon paste electrode modified with phenol imprinted polyaniline as a sensor for phenol analysis by potentiometric, Mater. Sci. Forum, 936, 71–76.

[14] Jiang, L.C., and Zhang, W.D., 2010, A highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on CuO nanoparticles-modified carbon nanotube electrode, Biosens. Bioelectron., 25 (6), 1402–1407.

[15] Pera-Titus, M., Bausach, M., Lorens, J., and Cunnil, F., 2008, Preparation of inner-side tubular zeolite NaA membranes in a continuous flow system, Sep. Purif. Technol., 59 (2), 141–150.

[16] Tohda, K., Dragoe, D., Shibata, M., and Umezawa, Y., 2001, Studies on matched potential method for determining selectivity coefficients of ion-selective electrode based on neutral ionophores: Experimental and theoretical verification, Anal. Sci., 17 (6), 733–743.

[17] Baerlocher, C.H., McCusker, L.B., and Olson, D.H., 2007, Atlas of Zeolite Framework Types, 6th Ed., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

[18] Houssin, C.J.Y., 2003, Nanoparticles in Zeolite Synthesis, Dissertation, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands.

[19] Smitha, S., Shajesh, P., Aravind, P.R., Kumar, S.R., Pillai, P.K., and Warrier, K.G.K., 2006, Effect aging time and concentration of aging solution on the porosity characteristic of subcritically dried silica aerogels, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 91 (1-3), 286–292.

[20] Cundy, C.S., and Cox, P.A., 2005, The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites: Precursors, intermediates and reaction mechanism-review, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 82 (1-2), 1–78.

[21] Treacy, M.M.J., and Higgins, J.B., 2001, Collection of Simulated XRD Powder Patterns for Zeolites, 4th Ed., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

[22] Huang, A., Wang, N., and Caro, J., 2012, Synthesis of multi-layer zeolite LTA membranes with enhanced gas separation performance by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as interlayer, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., 164, 294–301.

[23] Selim, M.M., and Abd El-Maksoud, I.H., 2004, Hydrogenation of edible oil over zeolite prepared from local kaolin, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 74 (1-3), 79–85.

[24] Rios, C.A., Wiliams, C.D., and Fulen, M.A., 2009, Nucleation and growth history of zeolite LTA synthesized from kaolinite by two different methods, Appl. Clay Sci., 42 (3-4), 446–454.

[25] Alkan, M., Hopa, C., Yilmaz, Z., and Guler, H., 2005, The effect of alkali concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite NaA from natural kaolinite, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 86 (1-3), 176–184.

[26] Silverstein, R.M., Webster, F.X., and Kiemle, D.J., 2005, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 7th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[27] Jedrzak, A., Rębiś, T., Klapiszewski, L., Zdarta, J., Milczarek, G., and Jesionowski, T., 2018, Carbon paste electrode based on functional GOx/silica-lignin system to prepare an amperometric glucose biosensor, Sens. Actuators, B, 256, 176–185.

[28] Yusan, S., Rahman, M.M., Mohamad, N., Arrif, T.M., Latif, A.Z.A., Mohd Aznan, M.A., and Wan Nik, W.S.B., 2018, Development of an amperometric glucose biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase on the Se-MCM-41 mesoporous composite, J. Anal. Methods Chem., 2018, 2687341.

[29] Kim, D.M., Cho, S.J., Cho, C.H., Kim, K.B., Kim, M.Y., and Shim, Y.B., 2016, Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide, Biosens. Bioelectron., 79, 165–172.

[30] Alhans, R.A., Singh, A., Singhal, C., Narang, J., Wadhwa, S., and Mathur, A., 2018, Comparative analysis of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical sensing of glucose on gold printed circuit boards, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 90, 273–279

[31] Khun, K., Ibupoto, Z.H., Lu, J., AlSalhi, M.S., Atif, M., Ansari, A.A., and Wilander, M., 2012, Potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite magnetic particle/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode, Sens. Actuators, B, 173, 698–703.

[32] Park, S., Boo, H., and Chung, T.D., 2006, Electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors, Anal. Chim. Acta, 556 (1), 46–57.

[33] Mousavi, M.P.S., Ainla, A., Tan, E.K.W., Abd El-Rahman, M.K., Yoshida, Y., Yuan, L., Sigurslid, H.H., Arkan, N., Yip, M.C., Abrahamson, C.K., Homer-Vanniasinkam, S., and Whitesides, G.M., 2018, Ion sensing with thread-based potentiometric electrodes, Lab Chip, 18 (15), 2279–2290.

[34] Zhang, J., Harris, A.R., Cattral, R.W., and Bond, A.M., 2010, Voltammetric ion-selective electrodes for the selective determination of cations and anions, Anal. Chem., 82 (5), 1624–1633.

[35] Taverniers, I., De Loose, M., and Van Bockstaele, E., 2004, Trends in quality in the analytical laboratory. II. Analytical method validation and quality assurance, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem., 23 (8), 535–552.

[36] Khasanah, M., Harsini, M., Widati, A.A., and Ibrani, P.M., 2017, The influence of ascorbic acid, creatine, and creatinine on the uric acid analysis by potentiometry using a carbon paste modified imprinting zeolite electrode, J. Chem. Technol. Metall., 52 (6), 1039–1044.

[37] Amani-Beni, Z., and Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A., 2017, A novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on the modification of carbon paste electrode with CuO nanoflower: Designing the experiments by response surface methodology (RSM), J. Colloid Interface Sci., 504, 186–196.

[38] Guyton, A.C., and Hall, J.E., 2006, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th Ed., Elsevier, Philadelphia.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2674 | views : 1683

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.