Application of Titanium-Silica-Graphite Composite Material for Photocatalytic Process of Methylene Blue

Lia Destiarti(1*), Risya Sasri(2)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Tanjungpura, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78114, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Tanjungpura, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78114, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The use of TiO2 in the slurry system for the photocatalytic process has disadvantages. It causes the resistance of UV transmission because it is cloudy and the difficulty for obtaining the catalyst at the end of the process. Therefore, an attempt to overcome this was conducted by compositing TiO2 on SiO2. Furthermore, carbon material can be used as a support material for TiO2-SiO2, so that the mixed materials can be used as a photocatalyst. The methods for synthesis the material was a sol-gel method by varying the composition of TiO2-SiO2/graphite, which was 1:1; 1:2; and 2:1. The material obtained was characterized by FTIR, DRUV, XRD, and SEM. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized material was tested in methylene blue solution whereas the quantitative data derived from UV-Vis spectrometry measurement. Photocatalyst activity was carried out by varying the degradation time of 30–180 min. The FTIR spectrum showed that O-H (~3400 cm–1) and C-O (~1100 cm–1) are the major groups in the synthesized materials. The value of bandgap energy (Eg) were 4.15, 4.20, 5.22, and 5.19 eV for TiO2-SiO2, TiO2-SiO2/G (1:1; 1:2; and 2:1) composites, respectively. The XRD pattern of TiO2-SiO2 showed that the highest peaks of 2q were observed at 25.32, 37.71 and 47.91°. Graphite identity appeared at 2q = 59.87°. Micrograph of SEM showed a homogenous dispersion of spherical particles in the materials. Photocatalytic test results showed that TiO2-SiO2/G with a composition of 2:1 has the highest percentage of methylene blue degradation, which reached 94% at 180 min.


titanium dioxide; silica; graphite; photocatalytic; methylene blue

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Ajmal, A., Majeed, I., Malik, N., Idriss, H., and Nadeem, M.A., 2014, Principles and mechanisms of photocatalytic dye degradation on TiO2 based photocatalysts: A comparative overview, RSC Adv., 4 (70), 37003–37026.

[2] Dariani, R.S., Esmaeili, A., Mortezaali, A., and Dehghanpour, S., 2016, Photocatalytic reaction and degradation of methylene blue on TiO2 nano-sized particles, Optik, 127 (18), 7143–7154.

[3] Destiarti, L., Tjokronegoro, R., Rakhmawaty, D., and Rudiyansyah, R., 2015, The use of TiO2-SiO2 in photocatalytic process to degrade toxic and dangerous waste, Makara J. Sci., 19 (1), 1–6.

[4] Lin, J., Luo, Z., Liu, J., and Li, P., 2018, Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution by using ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 87, 24–31.

[5] Kunarti, E.S., Kartini, I., Syoufian, A., and Widyandari, K.M., 2018, Synthesis and photoactivity of Fe3O4/TiO2-Co as a magnetically separable visible light responsive photocatalyst, Indones. J. Chem., 18 (3), 403–410.

[6] Basheer, C., 2013, Application of titanium dioxide-graphene composite material for photocatalytic degradation of alkylphenols, J. Chem., 2013, 456586.

[7] Chen, L., Chen, F., Shi, Y., and Zhang, J., 2012, Preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of a graphite-like carbonaceous surface modified TiO2 photocatalyst, J. Phys. Chem. C, 116 (15), 8579–8586.

[8] Purnawan, C., Wahyuningsih, S., and Kusuma, P.P., 2016, Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using graphite/PbTiO3 composite, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (3), 347–352.

[9] Leary, R., and Westwood, A., 2010, Carbonaceous nanomaterials for the enhancement of TiO2 photocatalysis, Carbon, 49 (3), 741–772.

[10] Cao, Q., Yu, Q., Connell, D.W., and Yu, G., 2013, Titania/carbon nanotube composite (TiO2/CNT) and its application for removal of organic pollutants, Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, 15, 871–880.

[11] You, J., Xiang, Y., Ge, Y., He, Y., and Song, G., 2017, Synthesis of ternary rGO-ZnO-Fe3O4 nanocomposites and their application for visible light photocatalytic degradation of dyes, Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, 19 (8), 2161–2169.

[12] Kim, J.R., and Kan, E., 2016, Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in water using a biochar-supported TiO2 photocatalyst, J. Environ. Manage., 180, 94–101.

[13] Vishnuganth, M.A., Remya, N., Kumar, M., and Selvaraju, N., 2016, Photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran by TiO2-coated activated carbon: Model for kinetic, electrical energy per order and economic analysis, J. Environ. Manage., 181, 201–207.

[14] Riazian, M., 2014, Dependence of Photocatalytic activity of TiO2-SiO2 nanopowders, J. Nanostruct., 4, 433–441.

[15] Yaseen, M., Shah, Z., Veses, R.C., Dias, S.L.P., Lima, E.C., dos Reis, G.S., Vaghetti, J.C.P., Alencar, W.S.D., and Mahmood, K., 2017, Photocatalytic studies of TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites xerogels, J. Anal. Bioanal. Tech., 8 (1), 348.

[16] Rasheed, T., Adeel, M., Nabeel, F., Bilal, M., and Iqbal, H.M.N., 2019, TiO2/SiO2 decorated carbon nanostructured materials as a multifunctional platform for emerging pollutants removal, Sci. Total Environ., 688, 299–311.

[17] Nguyen, D.C.T., Cho, K.Y., and Oh, W.C., 2017, Synthesis of mesoporous SiO2/Cu2O–graphene nanocomposites and their highly efficient photocatalytic performance for dye pollutants, RSC Adv., 7 (47), 29284–29294.

[18] Yahya, N., Aziz, F., Jamaludin, N.A., Mutalib, M.A., Ismail, A.F., Salleh, W.N.W., Jafar, J., Yusof, N., and Ludin, N.A., 2018, A review of integrated photocatalyst adsorbents for wastewater treatment, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6 (6), 7411–7425.

[19] Anita, Yadav, A.K., Khatun, N., Kumar, N., Tseng, C.M., Biring, S., and Sen, S., 2017, Size and strain dependent anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 due to Si incorporation, J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron., 28, 19017–19024.

[20] Hanaor, D.A.H., and Sorrell, C.C., 2011, Review of the anatase to rutile phase transformation, J. Mater. Sci., 46, 855–874.

[21] Rahmawati, F., Wahyuningsih, S., and Irianti, D., 2014, The photocatalytic activity of SiO2-TiO2/graphite and its composite with silver and silver oxide, Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal., 9 (1), 45–52.

[22] Scarpelli, F., Mastropietro, T.F., Poerio, T., and Godber, N., 2018, “Mesoporous TiO2 thin films: State of the art” in Titanium Dioxide - Material for a Sustainable Environment, Eds. Yang, D., IntechOpen, Rijeka, Croatia.

[23] Fajriati, I., Mudasir, and Wahyuni, E.T., 2014, Photocatalytic decolorization study of methyl orange by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites, Indones. J. Chem., 14 (3), 209–218.

[24] Ikeda, M., Kusumoto, Y., Somekawa, S., Ngweniform, P., and Ahmmad, B., 2006, Effect of graphite silica on TiO2 photocatalysis in hydrogen production from water-methanol solution, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A, 184 (3), 306–312.

[25] Lang, J., and Matějka, V., 2013, Graphite/titanium dioxide composite, Proceedings of The 5th International Conference NANOCON 2013, Brno, Czech Republic, 16-18 October 2013.

[26] Andriantsiferana, C., Mohamed, E.F., and Delmas, H., 2013, Photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye on TiO2/activated carbon composite material, Environ. Technol., 35 (1-4), 355–363.

[27] Guidetti, G., Pogna, E.A.A., Lombardi. L., Tomarchio, F., Polischuk, I., Joosten, R.R.M., Ianiro, A., Soavi. G., Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M., Friedrich, H., Pokroy, B., Ott, A.K., Goisis, M., Zerbetto, F., Falini, G., Calvaresi, M., Ferrari, A.C., Cerullo, G., and Montalti, M., 2019, Photocatalytic activity of exfoliated graphite-TiO2 nanoparticle composites, Nanoscale, 11 (41), 19301–19304.

[28] Salgado, B.C.B., and Valentini, A., 2019, Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of SiO2@TiO2 hybrid spheres in the degradation of methylene blue and hydroxylation of benzene: Kinetic and mechanistic study, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 36 (4), 1501–1518.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 358 | views : 142

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.