Design of Defect and Metallic Silver in Silver Phosphate Photocatalyst Using the Hydroxyapatite and Glucose

Uyi Sulaeman(1*), Suhendar Suhendar(2), Hartiwi Diastuti(3), Roy Andreas(4), Shu Yin(5)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Soeparno 61, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Soeparno 61, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Soeparno 61, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Soeparno 61, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
(5) Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author


The defect and metallic silver (Ag) in silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) photocatalyst were successfully generated using hydroxyapatite (HA) and glucose. Two steps of synthesis were done in these experiments. Firstly, the Ag/HA powder was prepared by reacting AgNO3 and HA, followed by the addition of a glucose solution. Secondly, the suspension of Ag/HA was reacted with AgNO3 aqueous solution. The yellow product of Ag/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst was produced. The products were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The decreased ratio of O/Ag and metallic Ag formation observed by the XPS was detected as the possible defect and Ag-doping in the photocatalyst. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might be caused by the oxygen vacancy and metallic Ag in Ag3PO4 that enables the separation of photo-generated electrons and holes.


Ag3PO4; glucose; hydroxyapatite; oxygen vacancy

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Sofi, F.A., Majid, K., and Mehraj, O., 2018, The visible light driven copper based metal-organic-framework heterojunction:HKUST-1@Ag-Ag3PO4 for plasmon enhanced visible light photocatalysis, J. Alloys Compd., 737, 798–808.

[2] Mohanty, S., Babu, P., Parida, K., and Naik, B., 2019, Surface-plasmon-resonance-induced photocatalysis by core−shell SiO2@AgNCs@Ag3PO4 toward water-splitting and phenol oxidation reactions, Inorg. Chem., 58 (15), 9643–9654.

[3] Ma, F., Yang, Q., Wang, Z., Liu, Y., Xin, J., Zhang, J., Hao, Y., and Li, L., 2018, Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and photostability of Ag3PO4/Bi2WO6 heterostructures toward organic pollutant degradation and plasmonic Z-scheme mechanism, RSC Adv., 8 (28), 15853–15862.

[4] Kim, Y.G., and Jo, W.K., 2019, Efficient decontamination of textile industry wastewater using a photochemically stable n–n type CdSe/Ag3PO4 heterostructured nanohybrid containing metallic Ag as a mediator, J. Hazard. Mater., 361, 64–72.

[5] Shen, Y., Zhu, Z., Wang, X., Khan, A., Gong, J., and Zhang, Y., 2018, Synthesis of Z-scheme g-C3N4/Ag/Ag3PO4 composite for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of phenol and selective oxidation of gaseous isopropanol, Mater. Res. Bull., 107, 407–415.

[6] Liu, Y., Fang, L., Lu, H., Li, Y., Hu, C., and Yu, H., 2012, One-pot pyridine-assisted synthesis of visible-light-driven photocatalyst Ag/Ag3PO4, Appl. Catal., B, 115-116, 245–252.

[7] Bi, Y., Hu, H., Ouyang, S., Jiao, Z., Lu, G., and Ye, J., 2012, Selective growth of metallic Ag nanocrystals on Ag3PO4 submicro-cubes for photocatalytic applications, Chem. Eur. J., 18 (45), 14272–14275.

[8] Gondal, M.A., Chang, X., Sha, W.E.I., Yamani, Z.H., and Zhou, Q., 2013, Enhanced photoactivity on Ag/Ag3PO4 composites by plasmonic effect, ‎J. Colloid Interface Sci., 392, 325–330.

[9] Sulaeman, U., Hermawan, D., Andreas, R., Abdullah, A.Z., and Yin, S., 2018, Native defects in silver orthophosphate and their effects on photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, Appl. Surf. Sci., 428, 1029–1035.

[10] Zhai, H., Yan, T., Wang, P., Yu, Y., Li, W., You, J., and Huang, B., 2016, Effect of chemical etching by ammonia solution on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 photocatalyst, Appl. Catal., A, 528, 104–112.

[11] Xie, Y.P., and Wang, G.S., 2014, Visible light responsive porous Lanthanum-doped Ag3PO4 photocatalyst with high photocatalytic water oxidation activity, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 430, 1–5.

[12] Chong, R., Cheng, X., Wang, B., Li, D., Chang, Z., and Zhang, L., 2016, Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 for oxygen evolution and methylene blue degeneration: Effect of calcination temperature, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 41 (4), 2575–2582.

[13] Cruz-Filho, J.F., Costa, T.M.S., Lima, M.S., Silva, L.J., Santos, R.S., Cavalcante, L.S., Longo, E., and Luz Jr., G.E., 2019, Effect of different synthesis methods on the morphology, optical behavior, and superior photocatalytic performances of Ag3PO4 sub-microcrystals using white light-emitting diodes, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A, 377, 14–25.

[14] Sulaeman, U., Suhendar, S., Diastuti, H., Riapanitra, A., and Yin, S., 2018, Design of Ag3PO4 for highly enhanced photocatalyst using hydroxyapatite as a source of phosphate ion, Solid State Sci., 86, 1–5.

[15] Wang, J.D., Liu, J.K., Lu, Y., Hong, D.J., and Yang, X.H., 2014, Catalytic performance of gold nanoparticles using different crystallinity HAP as carrier materials, Mater. Res. Bull., 55, 190–197.

[16] Cui, X., Tian, L., Xian, X., Tang, H., and Yang, X., 2018, Solar photocatalytic water oxidation over Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 composite materials mediated by metallic Ag and graphene, Appl. Surf. Sci., 430, 108−115.

[17] Zhang, J., Yu, K., Yu, Y., Lou, L.L., Yang, Z., Yang, J., and Liu, S., 2014, Highly effective and stable Ag3PO4/WO3 photocatalysts for visible light degradation of organic dyes, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 391, 12–18.

[18] Dong, P., Hou, G., Liu, C., Zhang, X., Tian, H., Xu, F., Xi, X., and Shao, R., 2016, Origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination, Materials, 9 (12), 968.

[19] Du, X., Ma, G., and Zhang, X., 2019, Oxygen vacancy-confined CoMoO4@CoNiO2 nanorod arrays for oxygen evolution with improved performance, Dalton Trans., 48 (27), 10116–10121.

[20] Bi, Y., Hu, H., Ouyang, S., Jiao, Z., Lu, G., and Ye, J., 2012, Selective growth of Ag3PO4 submicro-cubes on Ag nanowires to fabricate necklace-like heterostructures for photocatalytic applications, J. Mater. Chem., 22 (30), 14847–14850.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2472 | views : 1979

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.