Carbonization of Lignin Extracted from Liquid Waste of Coconut Coir Delignification

Widiyastuti Widiyastuti(1*), Mahardika Fahrudin Rois(2), Heru Setyawan(3), Siti Machmudah(4), Diky Anggoro(5)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(5) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Lignin as a by-product of the pulping process is less widely used for worth materials. In this study, the utilization of lignin by-product of the soda delignification process of coconut coir converted to the activated carbon by a simple precipitation method followed by the carbonization at various temperatures is presented. The by-product liquor of the soda delignification process having a pH of 13.4 was neutralized by dropping of hydrochloric acid solution to achieve the pH solution of 4 resulting in the lignin precipitation. The precipitated was washed, filtered, and dried. The dried lignin was then carbonized under a nitrogen atmosphere at various temperatures of 500, 700, and 900 °C. The dried lignin and carbonized samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyzer, to examine their morphology, X-Ray diffraction pattern, chemical bonding interaction, and surface area-pore size distribution, respectively. The characterization results showed that the functional groups of lignin mostly disappeared gradually with the increase of temperature approached the graphite spectrum. The XRD patterns confirmed that the carbonized lignin particles were amorphous and assigned as graphitic. All samples had a pore size of 3–4 nm classified as mesoporous particles. This study has shown that the carbonization lignin at a temperature of 700 °C had the highest surface area (i.e. 642.5 m2/g) in which corresponds to the highest specific capacitance (i.e. 28.84 F/g).


coconut coir; soda delignification; lignin; carbonization; mesoporous particles

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Haghdan, S., Rennecckar, S., and Smith, G.D., 2016, "Sources of lignin" in Lignin in Polymer Composites, Eds. Faruk, O., and Sain, M., Elsevier Inc., Oxford, 1–11.

[2] Graichen, F.H.M., Grigsby, W.J., Hill, S.J., Raymond, L.G., Sanglard, M., Smith, D.A., Thorlby, G.J., Torr, K.M., and Warnes, J.M., 2017, Yes, we can make money out of lignin and other bio-based resources, Ind. Crops Prod., 106, 74–85.

[3] Norgren, M., and Edlund, H., 2014, Lignin: Recent advances and emerging applications, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 19 (5), 409–416.

[4] Naseem, A., Tabasum, S., Zia, K.M., Zuber, M., Ali, M., and Noreen, A., 2016, Lignin-derivatives based polymers, blends and composites: A review, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 93, 296–313.

[5] Thakur, V.K., and Thakur, M.K., 2015, Recent advances in green hydrogels from lignin: A review, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 72, 834–847.

[6] Laurichesse, S., and Avérous, L., 2014, Chemical modification of lignins: towards biobased polymers, Prog. Polym. Sci., 39 (7), 1266–1290.

[7] Jin, W., Tolba, R., Wen, J., Li, K., and Chen, A., 2013, Efficient extraction of lignin from black liquor via a novel membrane-assisted electrochemical approach, Electrochim. Acta, 107, 611–618.

[8] Kouisni, L., Holt-Hindle, P., Maki, K., and Paleologou, M., 2012, The LignoForce SystemTM: A new process for the production of high-quality lignin from black liquor, J. Sci. Technol. For. Prod. Processes, 2 (4), 6–10.

[9] Wang, G., and Chen, H., 2013, Fractionation of alkali-extracted lignin from steam-exploded stalk by gradient acid precipitation, Sep. Purif. Technol., 105, 98–105.

[10] Kim, D., Cheon, J., Kim, J., Hwang, D., Hong, I., Kwon, O.H., Park, W.H., and Cho, D., 2017, Extraction and characterization of lignin from black liquor and preparation of biomass-based activated carbon there-from, Carbon Lett., 22, 81–88.

[11] Yahya, M.A., Al-Qodah, Z., and Ngah, C.W.Z., 2015, Agricultural bio-waste materials as potential sustainable precursors used for activated carbon production: A review, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 46, 218–235.

[12] Seo, J., Park, H., Shin, K., Baeck, S.H., Rhym, Y., and Shim, S.E., 2014, Lignin-derived macroporous carbon foams prepared by using poly(methyl methacrylate) particles as the template, Carbon, 76, 357–367.

[13] Balgis, R., Widiyastuti, W., Ogi, T., and Okuyama, K., 2017, Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of pt/3d hierarchical bimodal macroporous carbon nanospheres, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9 (28), 23792–23799.

[14] Snowdon, M.R., Mohanty, A.K., and Misra, M., 2014, A study of carbonized lignin as an alternative to carbon black, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2 (5), 1257–1263.

[15] Rabinovich, M.L., Fedoryak, O., Dobele, G., Andersone, A., Gawdzik, B., Lindström, M.E., and Sevastyanova, O., 2016, Carbon adsorbents from industrial hydrolysis lignin: The USSR/Eastern European experience and its importance for modern biorefineries, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 57, 1008–1024.

[16] Hu, S., and Hsieh, Y.L., 2017, Lignin derived activated carbon particulates as an electric supercapacitor: Carbonization and activation on porous structures and microstructures, RSC Adv., 7 (48), 30459–30468.

[17] Correa, C.R., Stollovsky, M., Hehr, T., Rauscher, Y., Rolli, B., and Kruse, A., 2017, Influence of the carbonization process on activated carbon properties from lignin and lignin-rich biomasses, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 5 (9), 8222–8233.

[18] Wang, H., Qiu, X., Liu, W., and Yang, D., 2017, Facile preparation of well-combined lignin-based carbon/ZnO hybrid composite with excellent photocatalytic activity, Appl. Surf. Sci., 426, 206–216.

[19] Vivekanandhan, S., Misra, M., and Mohanty, A.K., 2015, Microscopic, structural, and electrical characterization of the carbonaceous materials synthesized from various lignin feedstocks, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 132 (15), 41786.

[20] Fauziyah, M., Widiyastuti, W., Balgis, R., and Setyawan, H., 2019, Production of cellulose aerogels from coir fibers via an alkali–urea method for sorption applications, Cellulose, 26, 9583–9598.

[21] Raschip, I.E., Hitruc, E.G., and Vasile, C., 2011, Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks containing polysaccharides. II. Xanthan/lignin networks: A spectral and thermal characterization, High Perform. Polym., 23 (3), 219–229.

[22] do Santos, P.S.B., Erdocia, X., Gatto, D.A., and Labidi, J., 2014, Characterisation of Kraft Lignin Separated by Gradient Acid Precipitation, Ind. Crops Prod., 55, 149–154.

[23] Toledano, A., Serrano, L., Garcia, A., Mondragon, I., and Labidi, J., 2010, Comparative study of lignin fractionation by ultrafiltration and selective precipitation, Chem. Eng. J., 157 (1), 93–99.

[24] Rouquerol, J., Rouquerol, F., Llewellyn, P., Maurin, G., and Sing, K., 2014, Adsorption by Powders and Porous Solids: Principles, Methodology and Applications, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, London.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 707 | views : 431

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.