Optimization Model on the Effect of Clove Oil, Formaldehyde, and Chitosan Added to Batik Fabric Colored with Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb): Antifungal Properties and Stability


Edia Rahayuningsih(1*), Felix Arie Setiawan(2), Conny Julanda Ayanie(3), Ambrosius Aditya Antoko(4), Yosephine Intan Ayuningtyas(5), Himawan Bayu Petrus(6)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Jember, Jl. Kalimantan No. 37, Kampus Tegalboto, Jember, Jawa Timur 68121, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Triggered by the concept of sustainability, the use of natural dyes in batik fabric processing has increased recently. To inhibit fungus growth on batik fabric colored with natural dyes, either clove oil or formaldehyde was added as an antifungal agent. To increase the stability of the interaction between the antifungal agent and the batik fabric, chitosan was used as a crosslinker. A modified version of the standard tests American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) 30 and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied as the characterization method. The results showed that the growth percentage of fungi in Batik treated with either clove oil or formaldehyde was much lower than that in the control sample. Growth of Aspergillus niger could be prevented by about 32% using clove oil and 94% using formaldehyde. The optimal condition was obtained with 1% chitosan as a crosslinking reagent, 15.91 ppm of formaldehyde, and 60-min immersion time, with absorbance intensity of formaldehyde crosslinking solution and fungus growth areas being 0.159 and 2.47%, respectively.


Gambier natural dye; crosslinking; antifungal; chitosan; clove oil; formaldehyde

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] The Jakarta Post, 2009, Batik selected for UNESCO cultural heritage list, https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/09/08/batik-selected-unesco-cultural-heritage-list.html, accessed on 4 May 2019.

[2] Widiawati, D., 2018, The utilization of batik pattern and natural dyes as valuation of the local value in batik society, Jurnal Sosioteknologi, 17 (2), 208–219.

[3] Shahid, M., Islam, S., and Mohammad, F., 2013, Recent advancements in natural dye applications: A review, J. Cleaner Prod., 53, 310–331.

[4] Islam, S., Shahid, M., and Mohammad, F., 2013, Perspectives for natural product based agents derived from industrial plants in textile applications–a review, J. Cleaner Prod., 57, 2–18.

[5] Kasiri, M.B., and Safapour, S., 2013, “Natural dyes and antimicrobials for textiles” in Green materials for energy, products and depollution. Environmental chemistry for a sustainable world, Eds., Lichtfouse, E., Schwarzbauer, J., and Robert D., vol. 3, Springer, Dordrecht, 229–286.

[6] Haji, A., Mehrizi, M.K., and Sharifzadeh, J., 2016, Dyeing of wool with aqueous extract of cotton pods improved by plasma treatment and chitosan: Optimization using response surface methodology, Fibers Polym., 17 (9), 1480–1488.

[7] Kiumarsi, A., Gashti, M.P., Salehi, P., and Dayeni, M., 2017, Extraction of dyes from Delphinium Zalil flowers and dyeing silk yarns, J. Text. Inst., 108 (1), 66–70.

[8] Gashti, M.P., Katozian, B., Shaver, M., and Kiumarsi, A., 2014, Clay nanoadsorbent as an environmentally friendly substitute for mordants in the natural dyeing of carpet piles, Color. Technol., 130 (1), 54–61.

[9] Dhalimi, A., 2015, Permasalahan Gambir (Uncaria gambir L.) di Sumatera Barat dan alternatif pemecahannya, Perspektif, 5 (1), 46–59.

[10] Gove, P.B., 1966, Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged, G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, Mass.

[11] Gao, Y., and Cranston, R., 2008, Recent advances in antimicrobial treatments of textiles, Text. Res. J., 78 (1), 60–72.

[12] Paul, R., 2014, Functional finishes for textiles: Improving comfort, performance and protection, 1st Ed., Woodhead Publishing.

[13] Rahman, M.A., Ahsan, T., and Islam, S., 2010, Antibacterial and antifungal properties of the methanol extract from the stem of Argyreia argentea, Bangladesh J. Pharmacol., 5 (1), 41–44.

[14] Rubbo, S.D., Gardner, J.F., and Webb, R.L., 1967, Biocidal activities of glutaraldehyde and related compounds, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 30 (1), 78–87.

[15] Sarkar, R.K., De, P., and Chauhan, P.D., 2003, Bacteria-resist finish on cotton fabrics using natural herbal extracts, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 28 (3), 322–331.

[16] Walentowska, J., and Foksowicz-Flaczyk, J., 2013, Thyme essential oil for antimicrobial protection of natural textiles, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 84, 407–411.

[17] Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C., and Salgueiro, L., 2009, Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species, J. Med. Microbiol., 58 (11), 1454–1462.

[18] Emmons, C.W., 1933, Fungicidal action of some common disinfectants on two dermatophytes, Arch. Derm. Syphilol., 28 (1), 15–21.

[19] Klein, M., and Deforest, A., 1983, “Principles of viral inactivation” in Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, Eds., Block, S.S., 3rd Ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 422–434.

[20] McCulloch, E.C., and Costigan, S., 1936, A comparison of the efficiency of phenol, liquor cresolis, formaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide against Eberthella typhi at various temperatures, J. Infect. Dis., 59 (3), 281–284.

[21] Sagripanti, J.L., Eklund, C.A., Trost, P.A., Jinneman, K.C., Abeyta Jr., C., Kaysner, C.A., and Hill, W.E., 1997, Comparative sensitivity of 13 species of pathogenic bacteria to seven chemical germicides, Am. J. Infect. Control, 25 (4), 335–339.

[22] Muresan, A., Cerempei, A., Dunca, S., Muresan, R., and Butnaru, R., 2009, Aromatherapeutic characteristics of cotton fabrics treated with rosemary essential oil, Cellul. Chem. Technol., 43 (9-10), 435–442.

[23] Kang, H.C., Park, Y.H., and Go, S.J., 2003, Growth inhibition of a phytopathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum species by acetic acid, Microbiol. Res., 158 (4), 321–326.

[24] Chinta, S.K., Landage, S.M., Abhishek, A., Sonawane, K.D., and Jalkate, C., 2012, Medical textiles–application of essential oil as antimicrobial agent on nonwoven, GJBB, 1 (1), 75–80.

[25] United States Government Accountability Office, 2010, Formaldehyde in textiles: While levels in clothing generally appear to be low, allergic contact dermatitis is a health issue for some people, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-875, accessed on 28 November 2018.

[26] Bezerra, M.A., Santelli, R.E., Oliveira, E.P., Villar, L.S., and Escaleira, L.A., 2008, Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry, Talanta, 76 (5), 965–977.

[27] Montgomery, D.C., 2017, Design and analysis of experiments, 9th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.

[28] Rahayuningsih, E., Pamungkas, M.S., Olvianas, M., and Putera, A.D.P., 2018, Chlorophyll extraction from suji leaf (Pleomele angustifolia Roxb.) with ZnCl2 stabilizer, J. Food Sci. Technol., 55 (3), 1028–1036.

[29] Vedaraman, N., Sandhya, K.V., Charukesh, N.R.B., Venkatakrishnan, B., Haribabu, K., Sridharan, M.R., and Nagarajan, R., 2017, Ultrasonic extraction of natural dye from Rubia Cordifolia, optimisation using response surface methodology (RSM) & comparison with artificial neural network (ANN) model and its dyeing properties on different substrates, Chem. Eng. Process., 114, 46–54.

[30] Favero, M., 1991, “Chemical disinfection of medical and surgical materials” in Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, Eds., Block, S.S., 4th Ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 617–641.

[31] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1991, OSHA amends formaldehyde standard, United States Department of Labor.

[32] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 2007, Toxic and hazardous substances. Formaldehyde, United States Department of Labor, Code of Federal Regulations: 29 CFR 1910.1048.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.46038

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 143 | views : 79

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.