Optimization and Characterization of Wood Vinegar Produced by Shorea laevis Ridl Wood Pyrolysis


Hasan Ashari Oramahi(1*), Tsuyoshi Yoshimura(2), Elvi Rusmiyanto(3), Kustiati Kustiati(4)

(1) Faculty of Forestry, University of Tanjungpura, Jl. Daya Nasional, Pontianak 78124, Indonesa
(2) Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto University, Uji, 611-0011 Kyoto, Japan
(3) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Tanjungpura, Jl. Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, Indonesia
(4) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Tanjungpura, Jl. Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


In this study, the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to investigate the effects of wood particle size, pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time on the production of wood vinegar from Indonesia “bengkirai” wood (Shorea laevis Ridl). Characterization of wood vinegar was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three variable designs consisting of wood particle size (2.00, 2.38, and 3.36 mm), pyrolysis temperature (350, 400, and 450 °C), and pyrolysis time (105, 120, and 135 min) were employed in a BBD response surface methodology (RSM-BBD). RSM-BBD results suggested that maximum wood vinegar yield would be obtained with a wood particle size of 3.85 mm, pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C, and pyrolysis time of 93 min. In addition, the mathematical model indicated the maximum wood vinegar yield would be 30.31%. The main compounds in wood vinegar were acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, furfural, 2,3-pentanedione, phenol, 2-methoxy phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy phenol, and 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene.


wood vinegar; Shorea laevis; response surface methodology; Box-Behnken design; pyrolysis temperature; wood particle size

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.45783

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