Preparation of Ammonia Dealuminated Metakaolinite and Its Adsorption against Bixin

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.44706

Winda Rahmalia(1), Jean-Francois Fabre(2), Thamrin Usman(3*), Zéphirin Mouloungui(4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(2) Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSIACET, Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA), 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse, France
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(4) Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSIACET, Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA), 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse, France; INRA, UMR 1010 CAI, F-31030 Toulouse, France
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aims to prepare dealuminated metakaolinite which has a high surface area by using NH4OH as an activator. The natural kaolinite sample was treated at 600 °C for 6 h in order to obtain metakaolinite. A dealuminated metakaolinite was then prepared by the repeated activation method using concentrated ammonia (5 M NH4OH) at room temperature. Depending on the nature of each type of material, natural kaolinite, NH4OH treated kaolinite, metakaolinite and NH4OH treated metakaolinite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-N2) measurements. XRD and FTIR results confirmed that structural transformation from kaolinite to metakaolinite had occurred. According to SEM-EDS data, the activation of metakaolinite by NH4OH allowed the dealumination of metakaolinite. The increase in the Si/Al ratio was almost twice as high as in kaolinite. BET-N2 analysis showed that the specific surface area and the total pore volume increased significantly after activation. Its adsorption properties were tested against bixin. Bixin adsorption on dealuminated metakaolinite followed pseudo-second order kinetic where k2 = 0.20 g/mg min. The adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model where qm = 0.72 mg/g.


Keywords


ammonia; adsorption; bixin; metakaolinite

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Frost, R.L., Makó, É., Kristóf, J., and Kloprogge, J.T., 2002, Modification of kaolinite surface through mechanochemical treatment-a mid-IR and near-IR spectroscopic study, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 58 (13), 2849–2859.

[2] Frost, R.L., Kristóf, J., Makó, É., and Horváth, E., 2003, A DRIFT spectroscopic study of potassium acetate intercalated mechanochemically activated kaolinite, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 59, 1183–1194.

[3] Khan, T.A., Khan, E.A., and Shahjahan, 2015, Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption onto binary iron-manganese oxide coated kaolinite: Nonlinear isotherm and kinetics modeling, Appl. Clay Sci., 107, 70–77.

[4] Kumar, S., Panda, A.K., and Singh, R.K., 2013, Preparation and characterization of acid and alkaline treated kaolin clay, Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal., 8 (1), 61–69.

[5] Belver, C., Bañares-Muñoz, M.A., and Vicente, M.A., 2002, Chemical activation of kaolinite under acid and alkaline conditions, Chem. Mater., 14 (5), 2033–2043.

[6] Rahmalia, W., Fabre, J.F., Usman, T., and Mouloungui, Z., 2018, Adsorption characteristics of bixin on acid- and alkali-treated kaolinite in aprotic solvents, Bioinorg. Chem. Appl., 2018, 3805654.

[7] Yahaya, S., Jikan, S.S., Badarulzaman, N.A., and Adamu, A.D., 2017, Effect of acid treatment on the SEM-EDX characteristics of kaolin clay, Path Sci., 3 (9), 4001–4005.

[8] Mackenzie, R.C., 1970, Differential Thermal Analysis, Vol. I, Academic Press, London.

[9] Ilić, B.R., Mitrović, A.A., and Miličić, L.R., 2010, Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin, Hem. Ind., 64 (4), 351–356.

[10] Varga, G., 2007, The structure of kaolinite and metakaolinite, Epίtöanyag, 59, 6–9.

[11] Cardarelli, C.R., Benassi, M.T., and Mercadante, A.Z., 2008, Characterization of different annatto extracts based on antioxidant and colour properties, LWT Food Sci. Technol., 41 (9), 1689–1693.

[12] Das, D., Maulik, S.R., and Bhattacharya, S.C., 2007, Dyeing of wool and silk with Bixa orellana, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 32 (3), 366–372.

[13] dos Santos, G.C., Mendonça, L.M., Antonucci, G.A., dos Santos, A.C., Antunes, L.M.G.A., and Bianchi, M.L.P., 2012, Protective effect of bixin on cisplatin-induced genotoxicity in PC12 cells, Food Chem. Toxicol., 50 (2), 335–340.

[14] Venugopalan, A., Giridhar, P., and Ravishankar, G.A., 2011, Food, ethanobotanical and diversified applications of Bixa orellana L.: A scope for its improvement through biotechnological mediation, Indian J. Fundam. Appl. Life Sci., 1 (4), 9–31.

[15] Gómez-Ortíz, N.M., Vázquez-Maldonado, I.A., Pérez-Espadas, A.R., Mena-Rejón, G.J., Azamar-Barrios, J.A., and Oskam, G., 2010, Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 94 (1), 40–44.

[16] Hiendro, A., Hadari, F., Rahmalia, W., and Wahyuni, N., 2012, Enhanced performance of bixin-sensitized TiO2 solar cells with activated kaolinite, IJERI, 4 (1), 40–44.

[17] Ruiz-Anchondo, T., Flores-Holguín, N., and Glossman-Mitnik, D., 2010, Natural carotenoids as nanomaterial precursors for molecular photovoltaics: a computational DFT study, Molecules, 15 (7), 4490–4510.

[18] Olson, M., and Allen, N.D., 2012, Natural photodynamic agents and their use, Patent, EP2214495A4.

[19] Montenegro, M.A., Rios, A.O., Mercadante, A.Z., Nazareno, M.A., and Borsarelli, C.D., 2004, Model studies on the photosensitized isomerization of bixin, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (2), 367–373.

[20] Rios, A.O., Borsarelli, C.D., and Mercadante, A.Z., 2005, Thermal degradation kinetics of bixin in an aqueous model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53 (6), 2307–2311.

[21] Kohno, Y., Inagawa, M., Ikoma, S., Shibata, M., Matsushima, R., Fukuhara, C., Tomita, Y., Maeda, Y., and Kobayashi, K., 2011, Stabilization of a hydrophobic natural dye by intercalation into organo-montmorillonite, Appl. Clay Sci., 54 (3-4), 202–205.

[22] Rahmalia, W., 2009, Synthesis of Kaolinite-Bixin Organoclay and Their Photostability Test, Thesis, Magister of Biology, Christian University of Satya Wacana, Salatiga, Indonesia.

[23] Picot, P.A., and Grenouillet, P., 1995, Safety in the Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory, Eds. Prokopetz, A.T., and Walters, D.B., Wiley-VCH, Inc., New York.

[24] Portejoie, S., Martinez, J., and Landmann, G., 2002, L’ammoniac d’origine agricole: Impacts sur la santé humaine et animale et sur le milieu naturel, INRA Prod. Anim., 15 (3), 151–160.

[25] Tundo, P., and Selva, M., 2002, The chemistry of dimethyl carbonate, Acc. Chem. Res., 35 (9), 706-716.

[26] Rahmalia, W., Fabre, J.F., and Mouloungui, Z., 2015, Effect of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method, Procedia Chem., 14, 455–464.

[27] Rahmalia, W., Fabre, J.F., Usman, T., and Mouloungui, Z., 2014, Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 131, 455–460.

[28] Glukhovsky, V.D., Rostovskaja, G.S., and Rumyna, G.V., 1980, High strength slag alkaline cement, Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Paris, 3, 164–168.

[29] Steinerova, M., 2010, Microporous inorganic polymers based on metakaolinite and their open porosity structure of 10-20 nm in diameter, The 2nd International Conference NANOCON 2010, Olomouc, Czech Republic, 12–14 October 2010.

[30] Li, C., Sun, H., and Li, L., 2010, A review: The comparison between alkali-activated slag (Si + Ca) and metakaolin (Si + Al) cement, Cem. Concr. Res., 40 (9), 1341–1349.

[31] Freundlich, H., 1906, Adsorption in solution, Z. Phys. Chem., 57, 385-470.

[32] Langmuir, I, 1916, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids, Part I. Solids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 38 (11), 2221–2295.

[33] Lagergren, S., 1898, About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances, Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., 24 (4), 1–39.

[34] Ho, Y.S., and McKay, G., 1999, Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochem., 34 (5), 451–465.

[35] Vimonses, V., Lei, S., Jin, B., Chow, C.W.K., and Saint, C., 2009, Adsorption of congo red by three Australian kaolins, Appl. Clay Sci., 43 (3-4), 465–472.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.44706

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1285 | views : 892


Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.