Enhancing Thermal and Mechanical Properties of UHMWPE/HA Composite as Tibial Tray


Yusuf Bramastya Apriliyanto(1), Sri Sugiarti(2*), Sulistioso Giat Sukaryo(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Chemistry Building, Wing 1, 3rd Floor, Tanjung St., IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Chemistry Building, Wing 1, 3rd Floor, Tanjung St., IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
(3) Center for Science and Advanced Material Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (PSTBM-BATAN), Puspiptek St., Tangsel-Banten 15314, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


A bearing material in an artificial knee joint has to have good thermal and mechanical properties to prevent wear in order to be used as a tibial tray. Despite its well-known good properties, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) still needs to be modified to enhance its physical strength in its use in artificial joints. In this research, composites made from UHMWPE and hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared by mechanical alloying and hot press method and their thermal and mechanical properties were modified using gamma rays. The composites were prepared using various HA loading ratios and irradiated using gamma rays at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 75 kGy. The effects of HA loading and gamma irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties were studied by various methods. The results showed that the addition of HA enhanced the hardness of UHMWPE by 8–15% and the maximum stress up to 38%. Gamma irradiation enhanced the crystallinity by 113–172%, the melting point by 0.6–0.7%, and decreased the break elongation of composites by 23–48%. Addition of polyvinyl alcohol (5% w/w) in composites reduced their rigidity by 16–47% and hardness by 3–9%.


tibial tray; UHMWPE/HA composites; physical properties; irradiation, biomaterials

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Culliford, D., Maskell, J., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Arden, N.K., 2015, Future projections of total hip and knee arthroplasty in the UK: Results from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 23 (4), 594–600.

[2] Kremers, H.M., Larson, D.R., Crowson, C.S., Kremers, W.K., Washington, R.E., Steiner, C.A., Jiranek, W.A., and Barry, D.J., 2015, Prevalence of total hip and knee replacement in the United States, J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 97 (17), 1386–1397.

[3] Baena, J.C., Wu, J., and Peng, Z., 2015, Wear performance of UHMWPE and reinforced UHMWPE composites in arthroplasty applications: A review, Lubricants, 3 (2), 413–436.

[4] Maksimkin, A.V., Kaloshkin, S.D., Tcherdyntsev, V.V., Senatov, F.S., and Danilov, V.D., 2012, Structure and properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene filled with disperse hydroxyapatite, Inorg. Mater. Appl. Res., 3 (4), 288–295.

[5] Lednický, F., Šlouf, M., Kratochvil, J., Baldrian, J., and Novotná, D., 2007, Crystalline character and microhardness of gamma‐irradiated and thermally treated UHMWPE, J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys., 46 (3), 521–531.

[6] Slouf, M., Mikesova, J., Fencl, J., Stara, H., Baldrian, J., and Horak, Z., 2009, Impact of dose-rate on rheology, structure and wear of irradiated UHMWPE, J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys., 48 (3), 587–603.

[7] Kandahari, A.M., Yang, X., Laroche, K.A., Dighe, A.S., Pan, D., and Cui, Q., 2016, A review of UHMWPE wear-induced osteolysis: The role for early detection of the immune response, Bone Res., 4, 16014.

[8] Sukaryo, S.G., Arifin, N.L., Sudaryo, S., and Sudirman, S., 2012, Pengaruh radiasi gamma terhadap sifat mekanik UHMWPE untuk tibial tray, Jurnal Kimia dan Kemasan, 34 (2), 272–281.

[9] Slouf, M., Synkova, H., Baldrian, J., Marek, A., Kovarova, J., Schmidt, P., Doschner, H., Stephan, M., and Gohs, U., 2008, Structural changes of UHMWPE after e‐beam irradiation and thermal treatment, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B, 85 (1), 240–251.

[10] Peltzer, M., Wagner, J.R., and Jiménez, A., 2007, Thermal characterization of UHMWPE stabilized with natural antioxidants, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 87 (2), 493–497.

[11] Selyutin, G.E., Gavrilov, Y.U., Voskresenskaya, E.N., Zakharov, V.A., Nikitin, V.E., and Poluboyarov, V.A., 2010, Composite materials based on ultra high molecular polyethylene: Properties, application prospects, Chem. Sustainable Dev., 18, 301–314.

[12] Tai, Z., Chen, Y., An, Y., Yan, X., and Xue, Q., 2012, Tribological behavior of UHMWPE reinforced with graphene oxide nanosheets, Tribol. Lett., 46 (1), 55–63.

[13] Dangsheng, X., 2005, Friction and wear properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with carbon fiber, Mater. Lett., 59 (2-3), 175–179.

[14] Martínez-Morlanes, M.J., Castell, P., Martínez-Nogués, V., Martinez, M.T., Alonso, P.J., and Puértolas, J.A., 2011, Effects of gamma-irradiation on UHMWPE/MWNT nanocomposites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 71 (3), 282–288.

[15] Crowley, J., and Chalivendra, V.B., 2008, Mechanical characterization of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene–hydroxyapatite nanocomposites, Bio-Med. Mater. Eng., 18 (3), 149–160.

[16] Fang, L., Leng, Y., and Gao, P., 2006, Processing and mechanical properties of HA/UHMWPE nanocomposites, Biomaterials, 27 (20), 3701–3707.

[17] Li, F., Gao, L., Gao, H., and Cui, Y., 2017, The mechanical properties and modeling of creep behavior of UHMWPE/Nano-HA composites, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 26 (9), 4514–4521.

[18] Elmkharram, H.M.A., 2013, Mechanically processed alumina reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix composites, Thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

[19] Gupta, A., Tripathi, G., Basu, B., and Balani, K., 2012, Dependence of protein adsorption on wetting behavior of UHMWPE–HA–Al2O3–CNT hybrid biocomposites, JOM, 64 (4), 506–513.

[20] Gupta, A., Tripathi, G., Lahiri, D., and Balani, K., 2013, Compression molded ultra high molecular weight polyethylene–hydroxyapatite–aluminum oxide–carbon nanotube hybrid composites for hard tissue replacement, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 29 (6), 514–522.

[21] Alothman, O.Y., Almajhdi, F.N., and Fouad, H., 2013, Effect of gamma radiation and accelerated aging on the mechanical and thermal behavior of HDPE/HA nano-composites for bone tissue regeneration, Biomed. Eng. Online, 12, 95.

[22] Kang, X., Zhang, W., and Yang, C., 2016, Mechanical properties study of micro‐and nano‐hydroxyapatite reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 133 (3), 42869.

[23] Chen, K., Zhang, D., Cui, X., and Wang, Q., 2015, Preparation of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene grafted with polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as an artificial joint, RSC Adv., 5 (31), 24215–24223.

[24] Omata, S., Sawae, Y., and Murakami, T., 2015, Effect of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) wear particles generated in water lubricant on immune response of macrophage, Biosurf. Biotribol., 1 (1), 71–79.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.44086

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4542 | views : 3761

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.