Adsorption Analysis of Fluoride Removal Using Graphene Oxide/Eggshell Adsorbent

Norhusna Mohamad Nor(1*), Nur Hidayahtul Nazrah Kamil(2), Amirul Izan Mansor(3), Hawaiah Imam Maarof(4)

(1) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
(4) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Graphene oxide with eggshells (GO/ES) adsorbent has been studied for fluoride ions (F) removal. An adsorption study was conducted in batch experiments at different adsorption parameters, which are initial F concentration, contact time, and temperature. The effects of these adsorption parameters towards F removal by using GO/ES adsorbent were investigated. The adsorption parameters were then analyzed with adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich), kinetics (pseudo-first-order and second-order) and thermodynamic studies. Under various parameters, GO/ES is proven as an effective adsorbent with an adsorption capacity of F are up to 48 mg/g. The experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with Langmuir isotherm, which illustrated the monolayer pattern of F adsorption into GO/ES adsorbent. The adsorption kinetic analysis indicated that the adsorption data could be well described by Pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which indicated the chemisorption process, while thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of F was an exothermic process.


graphene oxide; egg shell; fluoride; adsorption; isotherms; thermodynamics; kinetics

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Mukherjee, S., and Halder, G., 2018, A review on the sorptive elimination of fluoride from contaminated wastewater, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6 (1), 1257–1270.

[2] Jain, P.S., Prasad, S.B.B., and Raghu, A.V., 2017, A short review: Removal of fluoride ions from ground water by using various techniques, IJRG, 5 (4), 98–104.

[3] Nigri, E.M., Cechinel, M.A., Mayer, D.A., Mazur, L.P., Loureiro, J.M., Rocha, S.D., and Vilar, V.J., 2017, Cow bones char as a green sorbent for fluorides removal from aqueous solutions: Batch and fixed-bed studies, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24 (3), 2364–2380.

[4] Engineering Services Division, 1983, National standard for drinking water quality, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

[5] Department of Environment Malaysia, 2010, Environmental requirements: A guide for investors, 11th Ed., Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.

[6] Salifu, A., 2017, Fluoride removal from groundwater by adsorption technology - The occurrence, adsorbent synthesis, regeneration and disposal, Dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.

[7] Kashi, G., Mehree, A., Zaeimdar, M., Khoshab, F., and Madaree, A.M., 2015, Removal of fluoride from urban drinking water by eggshell powder, Bulg. Chem. Commun., 47, 187–192.

[8] Hasan, S.H., Mohan, S., Singh, D.K., and Kumar, V., 2015, Synthesis of graphene oxide and its application for efficient removal of fluoride from water, J. Solid Waste Technol. Manage., 41 (4), 262–272.

[9] Kyzas, G.Z., Deliyanni, E.A., and Matis, K.A., 2014, Graphene oxide and its application as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 89 (2), 196–205,.

[10] Narasimharao, K., Venkata, R.G., Sreedhar, D., and Vasudevarao, V., 2016, Synthesis of graphene oxide by modified Hummers method and hydrothermal synthesis of graphene-NiO nano composite for supercapacitor application, J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 5 (6), 1000284.

[11] Liu, L., Cui, Z., Ma, Q., Cui, W., and Zhang, X., 2016, One-step synthesis of magnetic iron–aluminum oxide/graphene oxide nanoparticles as a selective adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous solution, RSC Adv., 6 (13), 10783–10791.

[12] Mohammad-Rezaei, R., Razmi, H., and Dehgan-Reyhan, S., 2014, Preparation of graphene oxide doped eggshell membrane bioplatform modified Prussian blue nanoparticles as a sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor, Colloids Surf., B, 118, 188–193.

[13] Bhaumik, R., Mondal, M.K., Das, B., Roy, P., Pal, K.C., Das, C., Baneerjee, A., and Datta, J.K., 2012, Eggshell powder as an adsorbent for removal of fluoride from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, E-J. Chem., 9 (3), 1457–1480.

[14] Raghav, S., and Kumar, D., 2019, Comparative kinetics and thermodynamic studies of fluoride adsorption by two novel synthesized biopolymer composites, Carbohydr. Polym., 203, 430–440.

[15] Swain, S.K., Patnaik, T., Singh, V.K., Jha, U., Patel, R.K., and Dey, R.K., 2011, Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects of removal of fluoride from drinking water using meso-structured zirconium phosphate, Chem. Eng. J., 171 (3), 1218–1226.

[16] Ahamad, K.U., Singh, R., Baruah, I., Choudhury, H., and Sharma, M.R., 2018, Equilibrium and kinetics modeling of fluoride adsorption onto activated alumina, alum and brick powder, Groundwater Sustainable Dev., 7, 452–458.

[17] Sarma, G.K., and Rashid, M.H., 2018, Synthesis of Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for adsorptive removal of fluoride from water: A mechanistic and kinetic study, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 63 (8), 2957–2965.

[18] Di, H., Yu, Z., Ma, Y., Pan, Y., Shi, H., Lv, L., Li, F., Wang, C., Long, T., and He, Y., 2016, Anchoring calcium carbonate on graphene oxide reinforced with anticorrosive properties of composite epoxy coatings, Polym. Adv. Technol., 27 (7), 915–921.

[19] Fathy, M., Moghny T.A., Mousa, M.A., El-Bellihi A.H.A.A, and Awadallah, A.E., 2016, Absorption of calcium ions on oxidized graphene sheets and study its dynamic behavior by kinetic and isothermal models, Appl. Nanosci., 6 (8), 1105–1117.

[20] Kowanga, K.D., Gatebe, E., Mauti, G.O., and Mauti, E.M., 2016, Kinetic, sorption isotherms, pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order model studies of Cu(II) and Pb (II) using defatted Moringa oleifera seed powder, J. Phytopharmacol., 5 (2), 71–78.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 149 | views : 127

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.