Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Oil Upgrading and Wax Deposition Control: Effect of Calcination Temperature

Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed Hussein(1*), Fatin Syahirah Mohamed Fuad(2), Marina Ismail(3)

(1) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(3) Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol-gel method for oil upgrading and wax deposition control. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were used to measure viscosity and wax deposition in the heavy crude oil and to investigate the effectiveness of the nanoparticles in the reduction of viscosity and wax deposition control of the heavy crude oil. This study investigated the effect of calcination temperature on ZnO nanoparticles during synthesis towards viscosity reduction and wax deposition control. ZnO nanoparticles were calcined at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C. The calcined ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron microscope (FESEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for its structure, size, shape, and morphology. The characterization results showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The physical properties and rheology of heavy crude oil were characterized by using Electronic Rheometer and cold finger method to analyze the viscosity, shear rate, and wax deposition of the heavy crude oil for performance study. Decreased in crystallite size from 15.59 to 12.84 nm was observed with increasing calcination temperature from 300 to 400 °C, and a further increase of calcination temperature from 400 to 900 °C, the crystallite size increased from 12.84 to 41.58 nm. The degree viscosity reduction (DVR %) of heavy crude oil was observed to increase by 41.7%, with decreasing ZnO nanoparticles size from 30.11 nm to 12.84 nm. The optimum calcination temperature was 400 °C. Wax deposition decreases by 32.40% after the addition of ZnO nanoparticles into heavy crude oil.


zinc oxide (ZnO); nanoparticles; calcination; wax content; viscosity reduction

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Sousa, A.L., Matos, H.A., and Guerreiro, L.P., 2019. Preventing and removing wax deposition inside vertical wells: A review, J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., 9 (3), 2091–2107.

[2] Subramanie, P.A.P., Padhi, A., Ridzuan, N., and Adam, F., 2019, Experimental study on the effect of wax inhibitor and nanoparticles on rheology of Malaysian crude oil, J. King Saud Univ. Eng. Sci., In Press, Corrected Proof.

[3] Mansourpoor, M., Azin, R., Osfouri, S., and Izadpanah, A.A., 2019, Experimental investigation of wax deposition from waxy oil mixtures, Appl. Petrochem. Res., 9 (2), 77–90.

[4] Quan, Q., Wang, W., Wang, P., Yang, J., Gao, G., Yang, L., and Gong, J., 2016, Effect of oil temperature on the wax deposition of crude oil with composition analysis, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 33 (4), 1055–1061.

[5] Meyer, R.F., 1987, Prospects for heavy crude oil development, Energy Explor. Exploit., 5 (1), 27–55.

[6] Fan, K., Huang, Q., Li, S., and Yu, W., 2017, The wax deposition rate of water-in-crude oil emulsions based on the laboratory flow loop experiment, J. Dispersion Sci. Technol., 38 (1), 8–18.

[7] Abdurrahman, M., Ferizal, F.H., Husna, U.Z., and Pangaribuan, L., 2018, Possibility of wax control techniques in Indonesian oil fields, AIP Conf. Proc., 1941(1), 020001.

[8] White, M., Pierce, K., and Acharya, T., 2018, A review of wax-formation/mitigation technologies in the petroleum industry, SPE Prod. Oper., 33 (3), 476–485.

[9] Khan, I., Saeed, K., and Khan, I., 2019, Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities, Arabian J. Chem., 12 (7), 908–931.

[10] Khan, R.N., Ali, N., Riaz, S., and Naseem, S., 2015, Effect of calcination on properties of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles, Mater. Today: Proc., 2 (10, Part B), 5765–5770.

[11] Ashraf, R., Riaz, S., Kayani, Z.N., and Naseem, S., 2015, Effect of calcination on properties of ZnO nanoparticles, Mater. Today: Proc., 2 (10, Part B), 5468–5472.

[12] Jain, D., and Bihani, A.D., 2014, Crude oil viscosity correlations: A novel approach for Upper Assam Basin, PetroTech 2014: The 11th International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, 12–14 January 2014.

[13] Santos, R.G., Loh, W., Bannwart, A.C., and Trevisan, O.V., 2014, An overview of heavy oil properties and its recovery and transportation methods, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 31 (3), 571–590.

[14] Hasnidawani, J.N., Azlina, H.N., Norita, H., Bonnia, N.N., Ratim, S., and Ali, E.S., 2016, Synthesis of ZnO nanostructures using sol-gel method, Procedia Chem., 19, 211–216.

[15] He, L., Tong, Z., Wang, Z., Chen, M., Huang, N., and Zhang, W., 2018, Effects of calcination temperature and heating rate on the photocatalytic properties of ZnO prepared by pyrolysis, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 509, 448–456.

[16] Mornani, E.G., Mosayebian, P., Dorranian, D., and Behzad, K., 2016, Effect of calcination temperature on the size and optical properties of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles, J. Ovonic Res., 12 (2), 75–80.

[17] Patil, S., and Raut, S.J., 2012, Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles and 50% ZnO-bentonite nanocomposite, Int. J. Chem. Sci., 10 (2), 1124–1132.

[18] Sunitha, S., Rao, A., and Jayabalan, K., 2015, Synthesis of novel cobalt doped zinc oxide/carbon nano composite for the photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 113, Orient. J. Chem., 31 (1), 107–112.

[19] Al-Hada, N.M., Saion, E.B., Shaari, A.H., Kamarudin, M.A., Flaifel, M.H., Hj Ahmad, S., and Gene, S.A., 2014, A facile thermal-treatment route to synthesize ZnO nanosheets and effect of calcination temperature, PLoS One, 9 (8), e103134.

[20] Ismail, A.M., Menazea, A.A., Kabary, H.A., El-Sherbiny, A.E., and Samy, A., 2019, The influence of calcination temperature on structural and antimicrobial characteristics of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method, J. Mol. Struct., 1196, 332–337.

[21] Getie, S., Belay, A., Chandra Reddy, A.R., and Belay, Z., 2017, Synthesis and characterizations of zinc oxide nanoparticles for antibacterial applications, J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol., S8, 004.

[22] Al-Hada, N.M., Saion, E.B., Shaari, A.H., Kamarudin, M.A., and Gene, S.A., 2013, The influence of calcination temperature on the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by thermal-treatment, Appl. Mech. Mater., 446-447, 181–184.

[23] Ekaputra, A.A., Sabil, K.M., Hosseinipour, A., and Bin Saaid, I., 2014, Impacts of viscosity, density and pour point to the wax deposition, J. Appl. Sci., 14 (23), 3334–3338.

[24] Patel, H., Shah, S., Ahmed, R., and Ucan, S., 2018, Effects of nanoparticles and temperature on heavy oil viscosity, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 167, 819–828.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2816 | views : 2305

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.