Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Gaharu Essential Oil Using Hydrodistillation Method


Nurhaslina Che Radzi(1*), Filzah Anati Kasim(2)

(1) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Gaharu wood produces an expensive essential oil due to its fragrance and chemical compounds. Normally, the black color wood is used for the extraction of oil because it contains high resin. However, the cost of this resinous wood is very expensive. Therefore, in this study, the raw material with low resin content (identified by the white color of the wood) will be used for the extraction of oil. However, hydrodistillation alone will not produce satisfactory volume. Thus, pretreatment is needed to enhance the amount of essential oil. This paper aims to investigate the effect of microwave pretreatment on gaharu essential oil extraction using the hydrodistillation method for the lower grade wood. The gaharu wood was pre-treated with microwave irradiation power of 800 kW at three different durations which were 1, 2 and 3 min. Later, extraction was performed using the hydrodistillation method for 30 h. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results show that microwave pretreatment produced higher yield (0.0379 wt.%) of gaharu essential oil compared to the extraction of the non-pretreated wood (0.0286 wt.%) in which the increase was 24.55%. The three minutes pretreatment time produced the largest amount of oil (0.0877 wt.%). The outcomes of this study indicated the increase of chemical components of gaharu essential oils such as (+)-Epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene, gurjunene, α-farnese, estragole, guaiene, valencene, spathulenol, α-cubebene and (-)-Spathulenol in the extraction of the pre-treated wood compared to the non-pretreated one.


gaharu; microwave; hydrodistillation; essential oil; gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS)

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Naef, R., 2011, The volatile and semi‐volatile constituents of agarwood, the infected heartwood of Aquilaria species: A review, Flavour Fragrance J., 26 (2), 73–87.

[2] Ismail, N., Ali, N.A.M., Jamil, M., Rahiman, M.H.F., Tajuddin, S.N., and Taib, M.N., 2015, A Review on Agarwood and Its Quality Determination, Jurnal Teknologi, 68 (1), 37–42.

[3] Ali, B., Al-Wabel, N., Shams, S., Ahamad, A., Khan, S.A., and Anwar, F., 2015, Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systematic review, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 5 (8), 601–611.

[4] Yusoff, N.A.M., Tajuddin, S.N., Hisyam, A., and Omar, N.A.M., 2015, Production of agarwood essential oil study on effectiveness pre-treatment technique of hydrodistillation extraction, BJRST, 5 (2), 62–69

[5] Barden, A., Anak, N.A., Mulliken, T., and Song, M., 2000, Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use and Trade and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis, TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

[6] Tan, C.S., Isa, N.M., Ismail, I., and Zainal, Z., 2019, Agarwood induction: Current developments and future perspectives, Front. Plant Sci., 10, 122.

[7] Rassem, H.H.A., Nour, A.H., and Yunus, R.M., 2016, Techniques for extraction of essential oils from plants: A review, Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 10 (16), 117–127.

[8] Sulaiman, N., Idayu, M.I., Ramlan, A.Z., Fashya, M.N., Farahiyah, A.N.N., Mailina, J., and Azah, M.A.N., 2015, Effects of extraction methods on yield and chemical compounds of gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis), J. Trop. For. Sci., 27 (3), 413–419.

[9] Uquiche, E., Jeréz, M., and Ortíz, J., 2008, Effect of pretreatment with microwaves on mechanical extraction yield and quality of vegetable oil from Chilean hazelnuts (Gevuina avellana Mol), Innovative Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 9 (4), 495–500.

[10] Wroniak, M., Rękas, A., Siger, A., and Janowicz, M., 2016, Microwave pretreatment effects on the changes in seeds microstructure, chemical composition and oxidative stability of rapeseed oil, LWT Food Sci. Technol., 68, 634–641.

[11] Hashim, Y.Z.H.Y., Ismail, N.I., and Abbas, P., 2014, Analysis of chemical compounds of agarwood oil from different species by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), IIUM Eng. J., 15 (1), 55–60.

[12] Chen, F., Mo, K., Zhang, Q., Fei., S., Zu, Y., and Yang, L., 2017, A novel approach for distillation of paeonol and simultaneous extraction of paeoniflorin by microwave irradiation using an ionic liquid solution as the reaction medium, Sep. Purif. Technol., 183, 73–82.

[13] Xu, W., Zhu, G., Song, C., Hu, S., and Li, Z., 2018, Optimization of microwave vacuum drying and pretreatment methods for Polygonum cuspidatum, Math. Prob. Eng., 2018, 4967356.

[14] Yoswathana, N., 2013, Extraction of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) oil by using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and enzyme pretreatment on hydrodistillation, J. Food Agric. Environ., 11 (2), 1055–1059.

[15] Azadmard-Damirchi, S., Alirezalu, K., and Achachlouei, B.F., 2011, Microwave pretreatment of seeds to extract high quality vegetable oil, World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., 5 (9), 508–511.

[16] Fadzil, A.H.M., Hamid, K.H.K., Rodhi, M.N.M., and Kamaruddin, L.M., 2013, Extraction of essential oil from biologically inoculated agarwood, 2013 IEEE Business Engineering and Industrial Applications Colloquium (BEIAC), 889–892.

[17] Azadmard-Damirchi, S., Habibi-Nodeh, F., Hesari, J., Nemati, M., and Achachlouei, B.F., 2010, Effect of pretreatment with microwaves on oxidative stability and nutraceuticals content of oil from rapeseed, Food Chem., 121 (4), 1211–1215.

[18] Yang, M., Huang, F., Liu, C., Zheng, C., Zhou, Q., and Wang, H., 2013, Influence of microwave treatment of rapeseed on minor components content and oxidative stability of oil, Food Bioprocess Technol., 6, 3206–3216.

[19] Mazaheri, Y., Torbati, M., Azadmard-Damirchi, S., and Savage, G.P., 2019, Effect of roasting and microwave pre-treatments of Nigella sativa L. seeds on lipase activity and the quality of the oil, Food Chem., 274, 480–486.

[20] Fathi-Achachlouei, B., Azadmard-Damirchi, S., Zahedi, Y., and Shaddel, R., 2019, Microwave pretreatment as a promising strategy for increment of nutraceutical content and extraction yield of oil from milk thistle seed, Ind. Crops Prod., 128, 527–533.

[21] Bakhshabadi, H., Mirzaei, H., Ghodsvali, A., Jafari, S.M., Ziaiifar, A.M., and Farzaneh, V., 2017, The effect of microwave pretreatment on some physico-chemical properties and bioactivity of Black cumin seed’s oil, Ind. Crops Prod., 97, 1–9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.43191

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 483 | views : 286

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.