In Silico Structural and Functional Annotation of Nine Essential Hypothetical Proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae

Khairiah Razali(1), Azzmer Azzar Abdul Hamid(2), Noor Hasniza Md Zin(3), Noraslinda Muhamad Bunnori(4), Hanani Ahmad Yusof(5), Kamarul Rahim Kamarudin(6), Aisyah Mohamed Rehan(7*)

(1) Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
(2) Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; Research Unit for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (RUBIC), Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Pahang, 25200, Malaysia
(3) Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
(4) Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
(5) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Pahang, 25200, Malaysia
(6) Department of Technology and Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Pagoh Campus, Pagoh Education Hub, Km 1, Jalan Panchor, Muar, Johor Darul Takzim, 84600, Malaysia
(7) Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; Research Unit for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (RUBIC), Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jl. Sultan Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Pahang, 25200, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


The ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to induce infections relies on its virulence factor machinery. A previous CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) study had identified 254 essential proteins that may be responsible towards the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. However, 39 of them were functionally and structurally uncharacterized. Hence, by using in silico approach, this study aimed to annotate the function and structure of these un-annotated proteins. Initially, all 39 proteins went through primary screening for template availability and pathogenicity. From there, 11 of them were selected and underwent further physicochemical, functional and structural categorization through integrated bioinformatics approach by means of amino acid sequence- and structure- based analyses. The obtained data revealed that 9 targeted proteins showed high possibility to be involved in either cell viability or cell pathogenicity mechanism of the bacterium, with SPD_1333 and SPD_1743 being the two most promising proteins to be further studied. Findings from this study can help in facilitating a better understanding of pathogenic ability of this microorganism and enhance drug development and target identification processes in the aim of improving pneumococcal disease control.


hypothetical proteins; S. pneumoniae strain D39; in silico analysis of protein; bioinformatics tools


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