Thermal Process of Castor and Plant Based Oil

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.39711

Mohammad Haniff Ahmad(1), Wan Asma Ibrahim(2), Jahirah Sazali(3), Izirwan Izhab(4), Zulkafli Hassan(5*)

(1) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
(2) Forest Research Institute Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
(4) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
(5) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Castor oil is an oil derived from castor seed from a plant Ricinus communis. The versatility of castor oil is highly attributed by 12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (ricinoleic acid) and its functional group. It is an oil that cannot be consumed by a human. However, castor oil actually can be used to produce many valuable products such as chemicals, paint, and cosmetics due to its unique characteristic which contains a high percentage of ricinoleic acid that helps in producing many valuable products. The utilization of vegetable oils is currently in the highlight of the chemical industry, as they are one of the most important renewable resources due to their universal availability, inherent biodegradability, low price, and eco-friendly. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to focus on the thermal cracking of castor oil with Zeolite ZSM-5 as the catalyst generates products consisting alcohol, methyl esters and fatty acids which are valuable raw materials for industries. The background, characteristics, composition, properties and industrial application of castor oil have also been discussed. The important properties and various applications of castor oil which can be obtained from toxic seeds have much greater potential than other available vegetable oils.

Keywords


castor oil; ricinoleic acid; composition; industrial application

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Mubofu, E.B., 2016, Castor oil as a potentially renewable resource for the production of functional materials, Sustainable Chem. Processes, 4, 11.

[2] Castor Oil & Derivatives Market: Global Market Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2021, 2018, https://www.researchnester.com/reports/castor-oil-derivatives-market-global-market-analysis-opportunity-outlook-2021/128, accessed on 12 September 2018.

[3] Patel, V.R., Dumancas, G.G., Viswanath, L.C.K., Maples, R., and Subong, B.J.J., 2016, Castor oil: Properties, uses, and optimization of processing parameters in commercial production, Lipid Insights, 9 (1), 1–12.

[4] Ogunniyi, D.S., 2006, Castor oil: A vital industrial raw material, Bioresour. Technol., 97 (9), 1086–1091.

[5] Ladda, P.L., and Kamthane, R.B., 2014, Ricinus communis (Castor): An overview, IJRPP, 3 (2), 136–144.

[6] Mutlu, H., and Meier, M.A.R., 2010, Castor oil as a renewable resource for the chemical industry, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 112 (1), 10–30.

[7] Oil Seed Crops Food & Energy, 2013, Castor bean, http://www.oilseedcrops.org/castor-bean, accessed on 20 August 2018.

[8] Armendáriz, J., Lapuerta, M., Zavala, F., García-Zambrano, E., and Ojeda, M.C., 2015, Evaluation of eleven genotypes of castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) for the production of biodiesel, Ind. Crops Prod., 77, 484–490.

[9] Shridhar, B.S., Beena, K.V., Anita, M.V., and Paramjeet, K.B., 2010, Optimization, and characterization of castor seed oil, Leonardo J. Sci., 9 (17), 59–70.

[10] Scholz, V., and da Silva, J.N., 2008, Prospects and risks of the use of castor oil as a fuel, Biomass Bioenergy, 32 (2), 95–100.

[11] Shrirame, H.Y., Panwar, N.L., and Bamniya, B.R., 2011, Bio-diesel from castor oil – A green energy option, LCE, 2 (1), 1–6.

[12] Dasari, S.R., and Goud, V.V., 2013, Comparative extraction of castor seed oil using polar and nonpolar solvents, Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol., 1, 121–123.

[13] Muzenda, E., Kabuba, J., Mdletye, P., and Belaid, M., 2012, Optimization of Process Parameters for Castor Oil Production, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, WCE, Vol. 3, July 4-6, 2012, London, U.K.

[14] Salimon, J., Mohd Noor, D.A., Nazrizawati, A.T., Mohd Firdaus, M.Y., and Noraishah, A., 2010, Fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of Malaysian castor bean Ricinus communis L. seed oil, Sains Malays., 39 (5), 761–764.

[15] Abitogun, A., Alademeyin, O., and Oloye, D., 2008, Extraction and characterization of castor seed oil, Internet J. Nutr. Wellness, 8 (2), 1–5.

[16] Mgudu, L., Muzenda, E., Kabuba, J., and Belaid, M., 2012, Microwave - Assisted extraction of castor oil, International Conference on Nanotechnology and Chemical Engineering (ICNCS’2012), 21-11 December 2012, Bangkok, 47–51.

[17] Nangbes, J.G., Nvau, J.B., Buba, W.M., and Zukdimma, A.N., 2013, Extraction and characterization of castor (Ricinus communis) seed oil, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 2 (9), 105–109.

[18] Warra, A.A., 2015, Physico-chemical and GC/MS analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis l.) seed oil, Chem. Mater. Res., 7 (2), 2224–3224.

[19] Abdelaziz, A.I.M., Elamin, I.H.M., Gasmelseed, G.A., and Abdalla, B.K., 2014, Extraction, refining and characterization of sudanese castor seed oil, J. Chem. Eng., 2 (1), 1–4.

[20] Omari, A., Mgani, Q.A., and Mubofu, E.B., 2015, Fatty acid profile and physicochemical parameters of castor oils in Tanzania, Green Sustainable Chem., 5 (4), 154–163.

[21] Yusuf, A.K., Mamza, P.A.P., Ahmed, A.S., and Agunwa, U., 2015, Extraction and characterization of castor seed from wild Ricinus communis Linn, Int. J. Sci. Environ. Technol., 4 (5), 1392–1404.

[22] Alwaseem, H., Donahue, C.J., and Marincean, S., 2014, Catalytic transfer hydrogenation of castor oil, J. Chem. Educ., 91 (4), 575–578.

[23] Castor Oil and its Chemistry, 2000, https://www.chem.uwec.edu/chem491_w01/Pharmacognosy491/castor bean chemistry.pdf, accessed on 5 May 2018.

[24] Gilbert, E.E., 1941, The unique chemistry of castor oil, J. Chem. Educ., 18 (7), 338–341.

[25] Botton, V., de Souza, R.T., Wiggers, V.R., Scharf, D.R., Simionatto, E.L., Ender, L., and Meier, H.F., 2016, Thermal Cracking of methyl esters in castor oil and production of heptaldehyde and methyl undecenoate, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 121, 387–393.

[26] Fréty, R., da Rocha, M.G.C., Brandão, S.T., Pontes, L.A.M., Padilha, J.F., Borges, L.E.P., and Gonzalez, W.A., 2011, Cracking and hydrocracking of triglycerides for renewable liquid fuels: Alternative processes to transesterification, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 22 (7), 1206–1220.

[27] Kazemian, H., Turowec, B., Siddiquee, M.N., and Rohani, S., 2013, Biodiesel production using cesium modified mesoporous ordered silica as a heterogeneous base catalyst, Fuel, 103, 719–724.

[28] Nam, L.T.H., Vinh, T.Q., Loan, N.T.T., Tho, V.D.S., Yang, X.Y., and Su, B.L., 2011, Preparation of bio-fuels by catalytic cracking reaction of vegetable oil sludge, Fuel, 90 (3), 1069–1075.

[29] Yigezu, Z.D., and Muthukumar, K., 2015, Biofuel production by catalytic cracking of sunflower oil using vanadium pentoxide, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 112, 341–347.

[30] Tian, H., Li, C., Yang, C., and Shan, H., 2008, Alternative processing technology for converting vegetable oils and animal fats to clean fuels and light olefins, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 16 (3), 394–400.

[31] Trevino, A.S., and Trumbo, D.L., 2002, Acetoacetylated castor oil in coatings applications, Prog. Org. Coat., 44 (1), 49–54.

[32] Sivaram, S., 2017, Wallace Hume Carothers and the birth of rational polymer synthesis, Resonance, 22 (4), 339–353.

[33] Xu, R., Pang, W., Yu, J., Huo, Q., and Chen, J., 2010, Chemistry of Zeolites and Related Porous Materials: Synthesis and Structure, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.

[34] Rahimi, N., and Karimzadeh, R., 2011, Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons over modified ZSM-5 zeolites to produce light olefins: A review, Appl. Catal., A, 398 (1-2), 1–17.

[35] Vichaphund, S., Aht-ong, D., Sricharoenchaikul, V., and Atong, D., 2015, Production of aromatic compounds from catalytic fast pyrolysis of Jatropha residues using metal/HZSM-5 prepared by ion-exchange and impregnation methods, Renewable Energy, 79, 28–37.

[36] Deshpande, D.P., Haral, S.S., and Sarode, P.B., 2013, Hydrocarbon liquid from castor Oil, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3 (7), 87–89.

[37] Sadrameli, S.M., and Green, A.E.S., 2007, Systematics of renewable olefins from thermal cracking of canola oil, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 78 (2), 445–451.

[38] Cheng, J., Li, T., Huang, R., Zhou, J., and Cen, K., 2014, Optimizing catalysis conditions to decrease aromatic hydrocarbons and increase alkanes for improving jet biofuel quality, Bioresour. Technol., 158, 378–382.

[39] Zhao, X., Wei, L., Cheng, S., Huang, Y., Yu, Y., and Julson, J., 2015, Catalytic cracking of camelina oil for hydrocarbon biofuel over ZSM-5-Zn catalyst, Fuel Process. Technol., 139, 117–126.

[40] Corma, A., Mengual, J., and Miguel, P.J., 2013, IM-5 zeolite for steam catalytic cracking of naphtha to produce propene and ethene. An alternative to ZSM-5 zeolite, Appl. Catal., A, 460-461, 106–115.

[41] Benson, T.J., Hernandez, R., French, W.T., Alley, E.G., and Holmes, W.E., 2009, Elucidation of the catalytic cracking pathway for unsaturated mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides on solid acid catalysts, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 303 (1-2), 117–123.

[42] Li, L., Quan, K., Xu, J., Liu, F., Liu, S., Yu, S., Xie, C., Zhang, B., and Ge, X., 2014, Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil using USY as catalyst, Fuel, 123, 189–193.

[43] Zandonai, C.H., Yassue-Cordeiro, P.H., Castellã-Pergher, S.B., Scaliante, M.H.N.O., and Fernandes-Machado, N.R.C., 2016, Production of petroleum-like synthetic fuel by hydrocracking of crude soybean oil over ZSM5 zeolite - Improvement of catalyst lifetime by ion exchange, Fuel, 172, 228–237.

[44] Adjaye, J.D., Katikaneni, S.P.R., and Bakhshi, N.N., 1996, Catalytic conversion of a biofuel to hydrocarbons: Effect of mixtures of HZSM-5 and silica-alumina catalysts on product distribution, Fuel Process. Technol., 48 (2), 115–143.

[45] Mortensen, P.M., Grunwaldt, J.D., Jensen, P.A., Knudsen, K.G., and Jensen, A.D., 2011, A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels, Appl. Catal., A, 407 (1-2), 1–19.

[46] Timilsina, G.R., and Shrestha, A., 2010, Biofuels: Markets, Targets and Impacts, World Bank, 1–47.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.39711

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 128 | views : 147


Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.