Screening of Culture Conditions for Production of Xylanase from Landfill Soil Bacteria

Siti Nor Amira Rosli(1), Rohaida Che Man(2), Nasratun Masngut(3*)

(1) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


Culture conditions including initial pH media, incubation period, inoculum size, type of carbon source, type of nitrogen source and its concentration, which affect xylanase production were screened via the one-factor-at-a-time approach. The bacteria used in the production of xylanase was isolated from the landfill site at Sg. Ikan, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Three characterizations of the landfill soil were investigated for their moisture content, ash content, and pH. The culture conditions range used in the experimental work were between 6–30 h for the incubation period, with initial pH between 5–9, inoculum size between 1–20% v/v, carbon, nitrogen sources, and nitrogen source concentration between 1–5% w/v. Xylanase activity was estimated using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) based on the release of xylose under standard assay conditions. The landfill soil was observed to have pH between pH 3.4–7.2 with a moisture content between 12.4–33.7% and ash ranged between 3.5–4.3%. Results showed that the highest xylanase activity within studied ranges was recorded at 25.91±0.0641 U/mL with 10% (v/v) inoculum size, 1% (w/v) xylose as sole carbon source, mixture of 1% (w/v) peptone and 0.25% (w/v) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen sources, which was carried out at initial pH of 8.0 for 24 h incubation.


xylanase; bacteria; landfill soil; screening parameter

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Levasseur, A., Asther, M., and Record, E., 2005, Overproduction and characterization of xylanase B from Aspergillus niger, Can. J. Microbiol., 51 (2), 177–183.

[2] Barlaz, M.A., 1998, Carbon storage during biodegradation of municipal solid waste components in laboratory‐scale landfills, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12 (2), 373–380.

[3] Singh, A., Kaur, A., Dua, A., and Mahajan, R., 2015, An efficient and improved methodology for the screening of industrially valuable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic microbes, Enzyme Res., 2015, 725281.

[4] Singh, A., Yadav, R.D., Kaur, A., and Mahajan, R., 2012, An ecofriendly cost effective enzymatic methodology for deinking of school waste paper, Bioresour. Technol., 120, 322–327.

[5] Kamble, R.D., and Jadhav, A.R., 2012, Isolation, purification, and characterization of xylanase produced by a new species of Bacillus in solid state fermentation, Int. J. Microbiol., 2012, 683193.

[6] Ho, H.L. and Ku, X.N., 2017, Kinetic study of cell growth and production of amylase, cellulase and xylanase by Bacillus subtilis using barley husk as the prime carbon source, J. Adv. Biol. Biotechnol., 14 (2), 1–18.

[7] Kareem, R.A.W.A., Khushk, I., Bhutto, M.A., Satar, Q.A., and Ahmed, A., 2014, Xylanase production using fruit waste as cost effective carbon source from thermo-tolerant Bacillus megaterium, Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 8 (38), 3463–3470.

[8] Masngut, N., Manap, S., Man, R.C., and Shaarani, S., 2017, Bacteria isolation from landfill for production of industrial enzymes for waste degradation, Indian J. Sci. Technol., 10 (7), 1–5.

[9] Aislabie, J., and Deslippe, J.R., 2013, “Soil Microbes and Their Contribution to Soil Services" in Soil Microbial Diversity, Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand, 143–161.

[10] Mokni-Tlili, S., Ben Abdelmalek, I., Jedidi, N., Belghith, H., Gargouri, A., Abdennaceur, H., and Marzouki, M.N., 2010, Exploitation of biological wastes for the production of value-added hydrolases by Streptomyces sp. MSWC1 isolated from municipal solid waste compost, Waste Manage. Res., 28 (9), 828–837.

[11] Beg, Q.K., Kapoor, M., Mahajan, L., and Hoondal, G.S., 2001, Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: A review, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 56 (3-4), 326–338.

[12] Ho, H.L., 2014, Effects of medium formulation and culture conditions on microbial xylanase production using agricultural extracts in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SsF): A review, J Biodivers. Biopros. Dev., 1 (3), 130.

[13] Kaushal, R., Sharma, N., and Dogra, V., 2015, Optimization of the production and molecular characterization of cellulase-free xylanase from an alkalophillic Bacillus subtilis SD8 isolated from paper mill effluent, Appl. Biochem. Microbiol., 51 (5), 551–559.

[14] Coman, G., and Bahrim, G., 2011, Optimization of xylanase production by Streptomyces sp. P12-137 using response surface methodology and central composite design, Ann. Microbiol., 61 (4), 773–779.

[15] Khusro, A., Kaliyan, B.K., Al-Dhabi, N.A., Arasu, M.V., and Agastian, P., 2016, Statistical optimization of thermo-alkali stable xylanase production from Bacillus tequilensis strain ARMATI, Electron. J. Biotechnol., 22, 16–25.

[16] Chaiyaso, T., Kuntiya, A., Techapun, C., Leksawasdi, N., Seesuriyachan, P., and Hanmoungjai, P., 2011, Optimization of cellulase-free xylanase production by thermophilic Streptomyces thermovulgaris TISTR1948 through plackett-burman and response surface methodological approaches, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 75 (3), 531–537.

[17] Raj, A., Kumar, S., and Singh, S.K., 2013, A highly thermostable xylanase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: Purification and partial characterization, Enzyme Res., 2013, 429305.

[18] Mostafa, F.A., El Aty, A.A.A., and Wehaidy, H.R., 2014, Improved xylanase production by mixing low cost wastes and novel co-culture of three marine-derived fungi in solid state fermentation, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 3 (7), 336–349.

[19] Panwar, D., Srivastava, P.K., and Kapoor, M., 2014, Production, extraction and characterization of alkaline xylanase from Bacillus sp. PKD-9 with potential for poultry feed, Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol., 3 (2), 118–125.

[20] Lee, N.K., 2018, Statistical optimization of medium and fermentation conditions of recombinant Pichia pastoris for the production of xylanase, Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 23 (1), 55–63.

[21] Gupta, G., Sahai, V., and Gupta, R.K., 2013, Optimization of xylanase production from Melanocarpus albomyces using wheat straw extract and its scale up in stirred tank bioreactor, Indian J. Chem. Technol., 20 (4), 282–289.

[22] Rajesh, M.J., and Rajesh, L., 2012, Effect of various physical parameters for the production of the enzyme xylanase from mixed culture of Bacillus polymyxa and Cellulomonas uda, Asian J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci., 2 (14), 72–74.

[23] Murugan, P., Jampala, P., Ramanujam, S., and Uppuluri, K.B., 2015, Production of xylanase from a mixed culture system of Acetobacter Xylinum and Cellulomonas Uda in submerged fermentation, Biosci., Biotechnol. Res. Asia, 12 (2), 1615–1622.

[24] Irfan, M., Asghar, U., Nadeem, M., Nelofer, R., and Syed, Q., 2016, Optimization of process parameters for xylanase production by Bacillus sp. in submerged fermentation, J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci., 9 (2), 139–147.

[25] Walia, A., Mehta, P., Chauhan, A., and Shirkot, C.K., 2013, Optimization of cellulase-free xylanase production by alkalophilic Cellulosimicrobium sp. CKMX1 in solid-state fermentation of apple pomace using central composite design and response surface methodology, Ann. Microbiol., 63 (1), 187–198.

[26] Saha, A., and Santra, S.C., 2014, Isolation and characterization of bacteria isolated from municipal solid waste for production of industrial enzymes and waste degradation, J. Microbiol. Exp., 1 (1), 12–19.

[27] AWPA, 1986, American Wood Preservers Association Standards, Stevensville, Maryland, USA.

[28] ASTM, D., 2000, Standard test methods for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils, Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, United States.

[29] Hubbard, A., 2017, The Ultimate Guide to Testing Soil pH, Hanna Instrument Blog,

[30] Rayment, G.E. and Higginson, F.R., 1992, Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water Chemical Methods, Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[31] Irfan, M., Safdar, A., Syed, Q., and Nadeem, M., 2012, Isolation and screening of cellulolytic bacteria from soil and optimization of cellulase production and activity, Turk. J. Biochem., 37 (3), 287–293.

[32] Kim, Y.K., Lee, S.C., Cho, Y.Y., Oh, H.J., and Ko, Y.H., 2012, Isolation of cellulolytic Bacillus subtilis strains from agricultural environments, ISRN Microbiol., 2012, 650563.

[33] Bahaa-Eldin, E.A.R., Yusoff, I., Rahim, S.A., Zuhairi, W.Y.W., and Ghani, M.R.A., 2008, Heavy metal contamination of soil beneath a waste disposal site at Dengkil, Selangor, Malaysia, Soil Sediment Contam., 17 (5), 449–466.

[34] Whalen, S.C., Reeburgh, W.S., and Sandbeck, K.A., 1990, Rapid methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 56 (11), 3405–3411.

[35] Adhyaru, D.N., Bhatt, N.S., and Modi, H.A., 2014, Enhanced production of cellulase-free, thermo-alkali-solvent-stable xylanase from Bacillus altitudinis DHN8, its characterization and application in sorghum straw saccharification, Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol., 3 (2), 182–190.

[36] Kapoor, M., Nair, L.M., and Kuhad, R.C., 2008, Cost-effective xylanase production from free and immobilized Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 and its application in saccharification of Prosopis juliflora, Biochem. Eng. J., 38 (1), 88–97.

[37] Battan, B., Sharma, J., Dhiman, S.S., and Kuhad, R.C., 2007, Enhanced production of cellulase-free thermostable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus ASH and its potential application in paper industry, Enzyme Microb. Technol., 41 (6-7), 733–739.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3025 | views : 2602

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.