Effect of Salinity and Oxygen Condition on Phosphate Release from Marine Sediment Measured Using Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film (DGT) Technique


Askal Maimulyanti(1*), Budiawan Budiawan(2), Asep Saefumillah(3), Heny Suseno(4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(4) Marine Radiology Group, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta 12070, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) is an analytical technique to determine phosphate in the environment. This technique uses a thin film diffusive hydrogel in contact with a binding phase (ferrihydrite) to binding of phosphate. The released phosphate from marine sediment of Jakarta Bay was studied by DGT technique for effect of salinity and oxygen condition. Effect of salinity was observed by NaCl concentration from 0-35 g/L. The maximum phosphate release from sediment was occurred at the concentration of NaCl 30 g/L with incubation for 15 days with phosphate released at 113.99 μg/L, MDGT of 4.7723 μg and CDGT of 17.56 μg/L. The experiment showed the increase of MgCl2 and CaCl2 concentration reduced phosphate release from sediment. The condition of oxygen indicating the release of phosphate under anaerobic conditions is greater than the aerobic condition. The aerobic conditions with incubation for 21 days showed the release of phosphate from sediment to overlying water of 124.72 μg/L, MDGT of 2.4492 μg and CDGT of 6.4380 μg/L. Anaerobic conditions with incubation for 21 days showed phosphate release from sediment to overlying water of 208.62 μg/L, MDGT of 6.1081 μg and CDGT of 16.06 μg/L. The experiment shows that salinity and oxygen concentration influences phosphate release from marine sediment of Jakarta Bay.


phosphate release; DGT; salinity; oxygen condition

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Ansari, A.A., Gill, S.S., and Khan, F.A., 2010, “Eutrophication: Threat to Aquatic Ecosystems” in Eutrophication: Cause, Consequences, and Control, Ansari, A.A., Gill, S.S., Lanza, G., and Rast, W., (eds.), Springer, Dordrecht, 143–171.

[2] Gomez, E., Durillon, C., Rofes, G., and Picot, B., 1999, Phosphate adsorption and release from sediment of brackish lagoons: pH, O2 and loading influence, Water Res., 33 (10), 2437–2447.

[3] Burns E.E., Comber, S., Blake, W., Goddard, R., and Couldrick, L., 2015, Determining riverine sediment storage mechanism of biologically reactive phosphorous in situ using DGT, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 22, (13), 9816–9828.

[4] Boström, B., Andersen, J.M., Fleisher, S., and Jansson, M., 1988, Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface, Hydrobiologia, 170 (1), 229–244.

[5] Gao, L., 2012, Phosphorus release from the sediment in Rongcheng Swan Lake under different pH condition, Procedia Environ. Sci., 13, 2077–2084.

[6] Lai, D.Y.F., and Lam, K.C., 2008, Phosphorus retention and release by sedimentation eutrophic Mai Po Marshes, Hongkong, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 57 (6-12), 349–356.

[7] Wang, S., Jin, X., Zhao, H., and Wu, F., 2006, Phosphorus fractions and its release in the sediments from the shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River area in China, Colloids Surf., A, 273 (1-3), 109–116.

[8] Zhang, K., Cheng, P., Zhong, B., and Wang, D., 2012, Total phosphorus release from bottom sediments in flowing water, J. Hydrodyn. Ser. B, 24 (4), 589–594.

[9] Zhang, Y., He, F., Liu, Z., Liu, B., Zhou, Q., and Wu, Z., 2016, Release characteristics of sediment phosphorus in all fractions of West Lake, Hang Zhou, China, Ecol. Eng., 95, 645–651.

[10] Huang, Q., Wang, Z., Wang, C., Wang, S., and Jin, X., 2015, Phosphorus release in response to pH variation in the lake sediment with different ratio of iron-bound P to calcium-bound P, Chem. Speciation Bioavailability, 17 (2), 55–62.

[11] Jiang, X., Jin, X., Yao, Y., Li, L., and Wu, F., 2006, Effects of oxygen on the release and distribution of phosphorus in the sediments under the light condition, Environ. Pollut., 141 (3), 482–487.

[12] Kim, L.H, Choi, E., and Stengstrom, M.K., 2003, Sediments characteristics, phosphorus types and phosphorus release rate between river and lake sediment, Chemosphere, 50 (1), 53–61.

[13] Zhang, H., Davison, W., Gadi, R., and Kobayashi, T., 1998, In situ measurement of dissolved phosphorus in natural waters using DGT, Anal. Chim. Acta, 370 (1), 29–38.

[14] Li, W., Zhao, H., Teasdale P.R., John, R., and Zhang, S., 2002, Application of cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane as binding agent phase in the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for measurement of trace metal, Anal. Chim. Acta, 464, 331–339.

[15] Chen, C.E., Zang, H., and Jones, K.C., 2012, A novel passive water sampler for in situ samples of antibiotics, J. Environ. Monit., 14 (6), 1523–1530.

[16] Zhang, J.Z., and Huang, X.L., 2011, Effect of temperature and salinity on phosphate sorption on marine sediments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45 (16), 6831–6837.

[17] Nielsen, D.L., Brock, M.A., Rees, G.N., and Baldwin, D.S., 2003, Effect of increasing salinity on freshwater ecosystem in Australia, Aust. J. Bot., 51, 655–665.

[18] Grace, M.R., Hislop, T.M., Hart, B.T., and Beckett, R., 1997, Effect of saline groundwater on the aggregation and settling of suspended particles in a turbid Australian river, Colloids Surf., A, 120 (1-3), 123–141.

[19] Donnelly, T.H., Grace, M.R., and Hart, B.T., 1997, Algal blooms in the Darling-Barwon River, Australia, Water Air Soil Pollut., 99 (1-4), 487–496.

[20] Jiang, X., Jin, X., Yao, Y., Li, L., and Wu, F., 2008, Effect of biological activity, light, temperature and oxygen on phosphorus release processes at the sediment and water interface of Taihu Lake, China, Water Res., 42 (8-9), 2251–2259.

[21] Puttonen, I., Matilla, J., Jonsons, P., Karlsson, O.M., Kohonen, I., Kotilainen, A., Luckkari, K., Malmaeus, M., and Rydin, E., 2014, Distribution and estimated release of sediment phosphorus in northern Baltic Sea archipelagos, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 145, 9–21.

[22] Wu, Z., Wang, S., Zhang L., and Jiao, L., 2016, DGT induced fluxes in sediments models for the simulation of phosphorus process and the assessment of phosphorus release risk, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23 (14), 14608–14620.

[23] Nürnberg, G.K., 1994, Phosphorus release from anoxic sediments: What we know and how we can deal with it, Limnetica, 10 (1), 1–4.

[24] Bates, M.H., and Neafus, N.J.E., 1980, Phosphorus release from sediment from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, Water Res., 14 (10), 1477–1481.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.35233

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1013 | views : 874

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.