Optimization of Production Process of Nano-Calcium Oxide from Pinctada maxima Shell by Using Taguchi Method


Kendri Wahyuningsih(1*), Jumeri Jumeri(2), Wagiman Wagiman(3)

(1) Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 12 Cimanggu-Bogor 16114, West Java, Indonesia
(2) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Caturtunggal, Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Caturtunggal, Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


West Nusa Tenggara is a center of sea oyster farming for Pinctada maxima in Indonesia. The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) compounds in the shell are one of the decomposed natural minerals to produce calcium oxide (CaO) compound which is able to be used as an alternative heterogeneous catalyst in nanometer scale. This research aims to discover the control factors which influence the production process of nanometer-scaled CaO heterogeneous catalyst and choose the best condition in its production process with a better-quality product. Calcined pearl shell (P. maxima) powder is milled by using Shaker mill. The experimental design is performed by using Taguchi method with an orthogonal matrix consisting of 4 control factor variables, i.e. milling time, ball-to-powder weight ratio, the diameter of milling beads and extent of milling the vial. The selection of best control factor variable combination is computed by using multiresponse loss function. ANOVA analysis shows that the product quality parameter of nano-calcium oxide is influenced by all experiment factors. Multi-response loss function analysis results an optimum factor and level combination under process condition happens during the duration of 3 h milling, the ball-to-powder weight ratio is 1:10, the diameter of milling beads is 5 mm and 55% extent of filling the vial.


Pinctada maxima; heterogeneous catalyst; Taguchi method; multi-response loss function

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Helwani, Z., Othman, M.R., Aziz, N., Kim, J., and Fernando, W.J.N, 2009, Solid heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides with methanol: A review, Appl. Catal., A, 363 (1-2), 1–10.

[2] Sani, Y.M., Wan Daud, W.M.A., and Aziz, A.R.A., 2013, Solid acid-catalyzed biodiesel production from microalgal oil—The dual advantage, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 1 (3), 113–121.

[3] Abdullah, S.H.Y.S., Hanapi, N.H.M., Azid, A., Umar, R., Juahir, H., Khatoon, H., and Endut, A., 2017, A review of biomass-derived heterogeneous catalyst for a sustainable biodiesel production, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 70, 1040–1051.

[4] Zabeti, M., Wan Daud, W.M.A., and Aroua, M.K., 2009, Activity of solid catalysts for biodiesel production: A review, Fuel Process. Technol., 90 (6), 770–777.

[5] Konwar, L.J., Boro, J., and Deka, D., 2014, Review on latest developments in biodiesel production using carbon-based catalysts, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 29, 546–564.

[6] Zein, Y.M., Anal, A.K., Prasetyoko, D., and Qoniah, I., 2016, Biodiesel production from waste palm oil catalyzed by hierarchical ZSM-5 supported calcium oxide, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (1), 98–104.

[7] Yutthalekha, T., Wattanakit, C., Warakulwit, C., Wannapakdee, W., Rodponthukwaji, K., Witoon, T., and Limtrakul, J., 2017, Hierarchical FAU-type zeolite nanosheets as green and sustainable catalysts for benzylation of toluene, J. Cleaner Prod., 142 (Part 3), 1244–1251.

[8] Pandit, P.R., and Fulekar, M. H., 2017, Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology, J. Environ. Manage., 198 (Part 1), 319–329.

[9] Gardy, J., Hassanpour, A., Lai, X., Ahmed, M.H., and Rehan, M., 2017, Biodiesel production from used cooking oil using a novel surface functionalised TiO2 nano-catalyst, Appl. Catal., B, 207, 297–310.

[10] Nurfitri, I., Maniam, G.P., Hindryawati, N., Yusoff, M.M., and Ganesan, S., 2013, Potential of feedstock and catalysts from the waste in biodiesel preparation: A review, Energy Convers. Manage., 74, 395–402.

[11] Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Lee, H.V., and Lau, P.L., 2012, Transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel by using short-necked clam (Orbicularia orbiculata) shell, Energy Explor. Exploit., 30 (5), 853–866.

[12] Lesbani, A., Tamba, P., Mohadi, R., and Fahmariyanti, 2013, Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica as catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil, Indones. J. Chem., 13 (2), 176–180.

[13] Nurhayati, Anita, S., Amri, T.A., and Linggawati, A., 2017, Esterification of crude palm oil using H2SO4 and transesterification using CaO catalyst derived from Anadara granosa, Indones. J. Chem., 17 (2), 309–315.

[14] Pratikha, R.S., Syukri, and Admi, 2013, Synthesis and characterization of acetonitrile ligated Cu(II)-complex and its catalytic application for transesterification of frying oil in heterogeneous phase, Indones. J. Chem., 13 (1), 72–76.

[15] Banković–Ilić, I.B., Miladinović, M.R., Stamenković, O.S., and Veljković, V.B., 2017, Application of nano CaO–based catalysts in biodiesel synthesis, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 72, 746–760.

[16] Hussain, S.T., Ali, S.A., Bano, A., and Mahmood, T., 2011, Use of nanotechnology for the production of biofuels from butchery waste, Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6 (31), 7271–7279.

[17] Ortiz, A.L., Sánchez-Bajo, F., Candelario, V.M., and Guiberteau, F., 2017, Comminution of B4C powders with a high-energy mill operated in air in dry or wet conditions and its effect on their spark-plasma sinterability, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 37 (13), 3873–3884.

[18] Enayati, M.H., Aryanpour, G.R., and Ebnonnasir, A., 2009, Production of nanostructured WC–Co powder by ball milling, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 27 (1), 159–163.

[19] Hadef, F., 2017, Synthesis and disordering of B2TM-Al (TM = Fe, Ni, Co) intermetallic alloys by high energy ball milling: A review, Powder Technol., 311, 556–578.

[20] Madan, S.S., and Wasewar, K.L., 2017, Optimization for benzeneacetic acid removal from aqueous solution using CaO nanoparticles based on Taguchi method, J. Appl. Res. Technol., 15 (4), 332–339.

[21] Mosaddegh, E., Hassankhani, A., Pourahmadi, S., and Ghazanfari, D., 2013, Ball mill–assisted preparation of nano-CaCO3 as a novel and green catalyst–based eggshell waste: A green approach in the synthesis of pyrano[4,3-b ]pyrans, Int. J. Green Nanotechnol., 1, 1–5.

[22] Ross, P.J., 1996, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering: Loss Function, Orthogonal Experiments, Parameter and Tolerance Design, McGraw Hill Professional, New York.

[23] Musabbikhah, Saptoadi, H., Subarmono, and Wibisono, M.A., 2017, Modelling and optimization of the best parameters of rice husk drying and carbonization by using Taguchi method with multi response signal to noise procedure, Int. J. Renewable Energy Res., 7(3), 1219–1227..

[24] Anantharaman, A., Ramalakshmi, S., and George, M., 2016, Green synthesis of calcium oxide nanoparticles and its applications, Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 6 (10), 27–31.

[25] Kim, S.M., Park, K.S., Kim, K.D., Park, S.D., and Kim, H.T., 2009, Optimization of parameters for the synthesis of bimodal Ag nanoparticles by Taguchi method, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15 (6), 894–897.

[26] Badrul, H.M., Rahmat, N., Steven, S., Syarifah, F., Shelly, W., and Agung, P.F., 2014, Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Calcium Oxide from Eggshell to be Catalyst of Biodiesel Waste Oil, Proceedings of the 3rd Applied Science for Technology Innovation, ASTECHNOVA 2014, Yogyakarta, 13-14 August, 2014, 340–345.

[27] Poorebrahimi, S., and Norouzbeigi, R., 2015, A facile solution-immersion process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic gibbsite films with a binary micro-nano structure: Effective factors optimization via Taguchi method, Appl. Surf. Sci., 356, 157–166.

[28] Katata-Seru, L., Lebepe, T.C., Aremu, O.S., and Bahadur, I., 2017, Application of Taguchi method to optimize garlic essential oil nanoemulsions, J. Mol. Liq., 244, 279–284.

[29] Panjaitan, F.R., Yamanaka, S., and Kuga, Y., 2017, Soybean oil methanolysis over scallop shell-derived CaO prepared via methanol-assisted dry nano-grinding, Adv. Powder Technol., 28 (7), 1627–1635.

[30] Elcioglu, E.B., Yazicioglu, A.G., Turgut, A., and Anagun, A.S., 2018, Experimental study and Taguchi analysis on alumina-water nanofluid viscosity, Appl. Therm. Eng., 128, 973-981.

[31] Acisli, O., Khataee, A., Karaca, S., Karimi, A., and Dogan, E., 2017, Combination of ultrasonic and Fenton processes in the presence of magnetite nanostructures prepared by high energy planetary ball mill, Ultrason. Sonochem., 34, 754–762.

[32] Tao, J.M., Zhu, X.K., Scattergood, R.O., and Koch, C.C., 2013, The thermal stability of high-energy ball-milled nanostructured Cu, Mater. Des., 50, 22–26.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.33871

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 170 | views : 145

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.