Cadmium(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Microporous Eggshell: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

Behzad Shamsi Zadeh(1), Hossein Esmaeili(2*), Rauf Foroutan(3)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering, Omidieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Omidieh, Iran
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran
(*) Corresponding Author


Heavy metals are soluble in the environment and can be dangerous for many species. So, removal of heavy metals from the water and wastewater is an important process. In this study, an adsorbent made of eggshell powder was employed to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution. A number of parameters were studied including pH of the aqueous solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time, the initial concentration of cadmium ion and mixing rate. The best efficiency for the removal of Cd(II) was obtained 96% using this adsorbent. The optimal parameters were ambient temperature of 30 °C, mixing rate of 200 rpm, pH of 9, an adsorbent dosage of 5 g/L and initial concentration of cadmium was 200 ppm. In order to study the kinetics of adsorbent, the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and intra-particle diffusion model were applied. According to the pre-determined correlation coefficients (R2), the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed a better correlation between the kinetic behaviors of the adsorbent. Furthermore, to study the equilibrium behavior of adsorbent, Langmuir and Freundlich models used and both models showed high efficiency in isotherm behavior of the adsorbent. So, this adsorbent can be used as a natural and cheap adsorbent.


cadmium ions; kinetic models; isotherm models; eggshell powder; aqueous solution

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Sari, A., Tuzen, M., Citak, D., and Soylak, M., 2007, Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution onto Turkish kaolinite clay, J. Hazard. Mater., 149 (2), 283–291.

[2] Barros, A.J.M., Prasad, S., Leite, V.D., and Souza, A.G., 2006, Biosorption of heavy metals in upflow sludge columns, Bioresour. Technol., 98 (7), 1418–1425.

[3] Fu, F., and Wang, Q., 2011, Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review, J. Environ. Manage., 92 (3) 407–418.

[4] Li, Q., Zhai, J., Zhang, W., Wang, M., and Zhou, J., 2007, Kinetic studies of adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by sawdust and modified peanut husk, J. Hazard. Mater., 141 (1), 163–167.

[5] Lodeiro, P., Barriada, J.L., Herrero, R., and de Vicente, M.E.S., 2006, The marine macroalga Cystoseira baccata as biosorbent for cadmium(II) and lead(II) removal: Kinetic and equilibrium studies, Environ. Pollut., 142 (2), 264–273.

[6] Jagtap, S., Thakre, D., Wanjari, S., Kamble, S., Labhsetwar, N., and Rayalu, S., 2009, New modified chitosan-based adsorbent for defluoridation of water, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 332 (2), 280–290.

[7] Esmaeili, H., and Foroutan, R., 2015, Investigation into ion exchange and adsorption methods for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions, IJBPAS, 4 (12), 620–629.

[8] Sari, A., and Tuzen, M., 2009, Kinetic and equilibrium studies of biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by macrofungus (Amanita rubescens) biomass, J. Hazard. Mater., 164 (2-3), 1004–1011.

[9] Han, R., Li, H., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Xiao, H., and Shi, J., 2006, Biosorption of copper and lead ions by waste beer yeast, J. Hazard. Mater., 137 (3), 1569–1576.

[10] Zhang, Y., and Banks, C., 2006, A comparison of the properties of polyurethane immobilised Sphagnum moss, seaweed, sunflower waste and maize for the biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in continuous flow packed columns, Water Res., 40 (4), 788–798.

[11] Li, X., Tang, Y., Cao, X., Lu, D., Luo, F., and Shao, W., 2008, Preparation and evaluation of orange peel cellulose adsorbents for effective removal of cadmium, zinc, cobalt and nickel, Colloids Surf., A, 317 (1-3), 512–521.

[12] Malkoc, E., and Nuhoglu, Y., 2005, Investigations of nickel(II) removal from aqueous solutions using tea factory waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 127 (1-3), 120–128.

[13] Zhu, B., Fan, T., and Zhang, D., 2008, Adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solution by citric acid modified soybean straw, J. Hazard. Mater., 153 (1-2), 300–308.

[14] Kula, I., Uğurlu, M., Karaoğlu, H., and Çelik, A., 2008, Adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (3), 492–501.

[15] Fiol, N., Villaescusa, I., Martínez, M., Miralles, N., Poch, J., and Serarols, J., 2006, Sorption of Pb(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by olive stone waste, Sep. Purif. Technol., 50 (1), 132–140.

[16] Foroutan, R., Esmaeili, H., and Fard, M.K., 2015, Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Pb(II) biosorption from aqueous solution using shrimp peel, IRJABS, 9 (11), 1954–1965.

[17] Hasan, S., Ghosh, T.K., Viswanath, D.S., and Boddu, V.M., 2008, Dispersion of chitosan on perlite for enhancement of copper(II) adsorption capacity, J. Hazard. Mater., 152 (2), 826–837.

[18] Dotto, G.L., and Pinto, L.A., 2011, Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan: Stirring rate effect in kinetics and mechanism, J. Hazard. Mater., 187 (1-3), 164–170.

[19] Sarvestani, F.S., Esmaeili, H., and Ramavandi, B., 2016, Modification of Sargassum angustifolium by molybdate during a facile cultivation for high-rate phosphate removal from wastewater: Structural characterization and adsorptive behavior, 3 Biotech., 6 (2), 251.

[20] Koo, F.S., and Esmaeili, H., 2017, Synthesis of CaO/Fe3O4 magnetic composite for the removal of Pb(II) and Co(II) from synthetic wastewater, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., DOI: 10.2298/JSC170704098S.

[21] Rafatullah, M., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., and Ahmad, A., 2009, Adsorption of copper(II), chromium(III), nickel(II) and lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions by meranti sawdust, J. Hazard. Mater., 170 (2-3), 969–977.

[22] Foroutan, R., Esmaeili, H., Abbasi, M., Rezakazemi, M., and Mesbah, M., 2017, Adsorption behavior of Cu(II) and Co(II) using chemically modified marine algae, Environ. Technol., DOI: 10.1080/09593330. 2017.1365946.

[23] Yadav, S.K., Singh, D.K., and Sinha, S., 2014, Chemical carbonization of papaya seed originated charcoals for sorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2 (1), 9–19.

[24] Foroutan, R., Esmaeili, H., Rishehri, S.D., Sadeghzadeh, F., Mirahmadi, S., Kosarifard, M., and Ramavandi, B., 2017, Zinc, nickel, and cobalt ions removal from aqueous solution and plating plant wastewater by modified Aspergillus flavus biomass: A dataset, Data Brief, 12, 485–492.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3013 | views : 3241

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.