The Chemometrics Techniques in Combination with Instrumental Analytical Methods Applied in Halal Authentication Analysis

Abdul Rohman(1*), Anggita Rosiana Putri(2)

(1) Research Center of Halal Products, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Halal food is taken into account as any food permitted to be consumed by Muslim according to Syariah law. Due to the development of science and technology in which some new food components such as food additives have been synthesized and produced, some industries used non-halal components such as pig derivatives in food products to reduce the production cost. Non-halal components added in food products are difficult to detect visually due to the close similarity between non-halal ingredients and components present in food. As a consequence, some scientists developed and proposed some instrumental techniques like spectroscopy, chromatography and molecular biology-based methods for identification of non-halal components. Food matrix is very complex to be analyzed. Therefore, the signals obtained during chemical and biological analyses are very complex which are difficult to interpret. Fortunately, a statistical technique called with chemometrics can be used an alternative method to handle the complex data met during analysis of non-halal components. Chemometrics has been widely used in many aspects of analysis in many types of the sector. In this review, some chemometrics techniques used to treat responses obtained from instrumental measurements intended for analysis of non-halal components in food matrix were highlighted.


chemometrics; non-halal component; authentication; classification; multivariate calibration

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Mursyidi, A., 2013, The role of analytical chemistry in Halal certification, J. Food Pharm. Sci., 1 (1), 1–4.

[2] Rohman, A., and Che Man, Y.B., 2012, Analysis of pig derivatives for halal authentication studies, Food Rev. Int., 28 (1), 97–112.

[3] Guntarti, A., Martono, S., Yuswanto, A., and Rohman, A., 2015, FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for analysis of wild boar meat in meatball formulation, Asian J. Biochem., 10 (4), 165–172.

[4] Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Che Man, Y.B., Rohman, A., Rosman, A.S., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S., and Khatib, A., 2015, Detection of butter adulteration with lard by employing 1H-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis, J. Oleo Sci., 64 (7), 697–703.

[5] Indrasti, D., Che Man, Y.B., Mustafa, S., and Hashim, D.M., 2010, Lard detection based on fatty acids profile using comprehensive gas chromatography hyphenated with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Food Chem., 122 (4), 1273–1277.

[6] Rohman, A.,Triyana, K., Sismindari, and Erwanto, Y., 2012, Differentiation of lard and other animal fats based on triacylglycerols composition and principal component analysis, Int. Food Res. J., 19 (2), 475–479.

[7] Mansor, T.S.T., Che Man, Y.B., and Rohman, A., 2011, Application of fast gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis of lard adulteration in virgin coconut oil, Food Anal. Methods, 4 (3), 365–372.

[8] Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Arieff, S.R., Rohman, A., Amin, I., Shuhaimi, M., and Khatib, A., 2015, Detection of butter adulteration with lard using differential scanning calorimetry, Int. Food Res. J., 22 (2), 832–839.

[9] Sudjadi, Wardani, H.S., Sepminarti, T., and Rohman, A., 2016, Analysis of porcine gelatin DNA in commercial capsule shell using real-time polymerase chain reaction for halal authentication, Int. J. Food Prop., 19 (9), 2127–2134.

[10] Masiri, J., Benoit, L., Barrios-Lopez, B., Thienes, C., Meshgi, M., Agapov, A., Dobritsa, A., Nadala, C., and Samadpour, M., 2016, Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues, Meat Sci., 121, 397–401.

[11] Perestam, A.T., Fujisaki, K.K., Nava, O., and Hellberg, R.S., 2017, Comparison of real-time PCR and ELISA-based methods for the detection of beef and pork in processed meat products, Food Control, 71, 346–352.

[12] Bro, R., Jerome, J.W., Paul, R.M., and Kowalski, B.R., 1997, Review of chemometrics applied to spectroscopy: 1985–95, Part 3—Multi-way analysis, Appl. Spectros. Rev., 32 (3), 237–261.

[13] Lavine, B.K., 1998, Chemometrics, Anal. Chem., 70 (12), 209–228.

[14] Gemperline, P., 2006, Practical Guide to Chemometrics, CRC Press, Florida.

[15] CAMO, 2016, Chemometrics,, accessed on 17 July 2016

[16] Hemmateenejad, B., 2006, Chemometrics in Iran, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 81, 202–208.

[17] Miller, J.N., and Miller, J.C., 2010, Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry, Prentice Hall, England.

[18] Feudale, R.N., Woody, N.A., Tan, H., Myles, A.J., Brown, S.D., and Ferré, J., 2002, Transfer of multivariate calibration models: A review, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 64 (2), 181–192.

[19] Romia, M.B., and Bernardez, M.A., 2009, “Multivariate calibration for quantitative analysis” in Infrared Spectroscopy for Food Quality analysis and control, Sun, D.W. Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 51–79.

[20] Rohman, A., 2012, Application of FTIR spectroscopy for quality control in pharmaceutical products: a review, Indonesian J. Pharm., 23 (1), 1–8.

[21] Adam, M.J., 2004, Chemometrics in Analytical Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.

[22] Ragno, G., Ioele, G., and Risoli, A., 2004, Multivariate calibration techniques applied to the spectrophotometric analysis of one-to-four component systems, Anal. Chim. Acta, 512 (1), 173–180.

[23] Mansor, T.S.T., Che Man, Y.B., and Shuhaimi, M., 2012, Employment of differential scanning calorimetry in detecting lard adulteration in virgin coconut oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 89 (3), 485–496.

[24] Marikkar, J.M.N., Ghazali, H.M., Che Man, Y.B., and Lai, O.M., 2002, The use of cooling and heating thermograms for monitoring of tallow, lard and chicken fat adulterations in canola oil, Food Res. Int., 35 (10), 1007–1014.

[25] Rebechi, S.R., Vélez, M.A., Vaira, S., and Perotti, M.C., 2016, Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques, Food Chem., 192, 1025–1032.

[26] Naes, T., Isaksson, T., Fearn, T., and Davis, T., 2002, Multivariate Calibration and Classification, NIR Publications, Chichester.

[27] Martens, H., and Martens, M., 2001, Multivariate Analysis of Quality, an Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

[28] Geladi P., 2003, Chemometrics in spectroscopy. Part 1. Classical chemometrics, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 58 (5), 767–782.

[29] Sádecká, J., and Tóthová, J., 2007, Fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics in the food classification−a review, Czech J. Food Sci., 25 (4), 159–173.

[30] Rohman, A., and Che Man, Y.B., 2009, Analysis of cod-liver oil adulteration using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 86, 1149–1153.

[31] Rohman A., and Che Man, Y.B., 2010, FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of lard in the mixtures with body fats of lamb, cow, and chicken, Int. Food Res. J., 17, 519–527.

[32] Rohman, A., Che Man, Y.B., Hashim, P., and Ismail, A., 2011, FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for analysis of lard adulteration in some vegetable oils, CyTA J. Food, 9 (2), 96–101.

[33] Kurniawati, E., Rohman, A., and Triyana, K., 2014, Analysis of lard in meatball broth using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics, Meat Sci., 96 (1), 94–98.

[34] Abdi, H., and Lynne, J.W., 2010, Principal Component Analysis, Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat., 2 (4), 433–459.

[35] Ballabio, D., Skov, T., Leardi, R., and Bro, R., 2008, Classification of GC-MS measurements of wines by combining data dimension reduction and variable selection techniques, J. Chemom., 22 (8), 457–463.

[36] Che Man, Y.B., Rohman, A., and Mansor, T.S.T., 2011, Differentiation of lard from other edible oils by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 88 (2), 187–192.

[37] Rohman, A., and Che Man, Y.B., 2011, Authentication analysis of cod liver oil from beef fat using fatty acid composition and FTIR spectra, Food Addit. Contam. Part A Chem. Anal. Control Expo. Risk Assess., 28 (11), 1469–1474.

[38] Hashim, D.M., Che Man, Y.B., Norakhasa, R., Shuhaimi, M., Salmah, Y., and Syahariza, Z.A., 2010, Potential use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins, Food Chem., 118 (3), 856–860.

[39] Nur Azira, T., Amin, I., and Che Man, Y.B., 2012, Differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins in processed products via sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques, Int. Food Res. J., 19 (3), 1175–1180.

[40] Nur Azira, T., Che Man, Y.B., Raja Mohd Hafidz, R.N., Aina, M.A., and Amin, I., 2014, Use of principal component analysis for differentiation of gelatin sources based on polypeptide molecular weights, Food Chem., 151, 286–292.

[41] Nemati, M., Oveisi, M.R., Abdollahi, H., and Sabzevari, O., 2004, Differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins using principal component analysis, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 34 (3), 485–492.

[42] Raraswati, M.A., Triyana, K., Wahyudi, T., and Rohman, A., 2014, Differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatins in soft candy based on amino acid profiles and chemometrics, J. Food Pharm. Sci., 2, 1–6.

[43] Widyaninggar, A., Wahyudi, T., Triyana, K., and Rohman, A., 2012, Differentiation between porcine and bovine gelatins in commercial capsule shells based on amino acid profiles and principal component analysis, Indonesian J. Pharm., 23 (2),104–109.

[44] Guimet, F., Boqué, R., and Ferré, J., 2004, Cluster analysis applied to the exploratory analysis of commercial Spanish olive oils by means of excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 52 (22), 6673–6679.

[45] Cebi, N., Durak, M.Z., Toker, O.S., Sagdic, O., and Arici, M., 2016, An evaluation of Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy method for the classification and discrimination of bovine, porcine and fish gelatins, Food Chem., 190, 1109–1115.

[46] Lee, J.Y., Park, J.H., Mun, H., Shim, W.B., and Lim, S.H., 2018, Quantitative analysis of lard in animal fat mixture using visible Raman spectroscopy, Food Chem., 254, 109–114.

[47] Che Man, Y.B., Syahariza, Z.A., and Rohman, A., 2011, Discriminant analysis of fats and oils using FTIR spectroscopy for Halal analysis, Food Anal. Methods, 4 (3), 404–409.

[48] Upadhyay, N., Jaiswal, P., and Narayan Jha, S., 2018, Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATReFTIR) in MIR range coupled with chemometrics for detection of pig body fat in pure ghee (heat clarified milk fat), J. Mol. Struct., 1153, 275–281.

[49] Basri, K.N., Hussain, M.N., Bakar, J., Sharif, Z., Khir, M.F.A., and Zoolfakar, A.S., 2017, Classification and quantification of palm oil adulteration via portable NIR spectroscopy, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 173, 335–342.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 639 | views : 512

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.