Characterization of ZrO2-Montmorilonite Pillarization Process from Local Zirconium Oxychloride Local Made PSTA-BATAN

Muzakky Muzakky(1*), Herry Poernomo(2)

(1) Center for Accelerator Science and Technology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Babarsari No. 21, POB 6101 ykbb, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Center for Accelerator Science and Technology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Babarsari No. 21, POB 6101 ykbb, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Characterization of the pillarization process product of ZrO2-montmorillonite from Zirconium oxychloride local made of PSTA-BATAN has been done. The objective of this research is to control the quality of pillarization process product of the new material ZrO2-montmorilonite.  This new material was produced from local made Zirconium oxychloride (ZOC) of PSTA-BATAN by dry process and bentonite (Na-montmorillonite) imported from Thailand by the pillarization process. During optimization the pillarization quality control would be followed by absorbance using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis DRS) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). While the type of functional group can be detected by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and the surface image was observed by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and BET methods. The result gained showed that the optimum quality of ZrO2-montmorillonite was at Zr concentration of 0.2 M with the absorbance of 1.04 au by XRD and DRS. The best precursor used was ethylene glycol with a drying process in the cold conditions at the absorbance of 1.2 au. The best calcination process was at the temperature of 600 °C with the reached absorbance value of 1.3 au. The results of TEM image observation after calcination at the temperature of 600 °C were clearer and more porous than before and showed specific surface area of 105 m2/g. The interpretation results of FTIR spectra on the new material of ZrO2-montmorillonite contained the cluster of ΞSi-OH, ΞAl-OH and Si-O functional groups indicating pillar groups.


UV-Vis DRS; FTIR; ZrO2-montmorilonite; TEM

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Poernomo.H., 2014, Business prospect of local zircon sand becomes zirconium and radioactively free of rare earth metal oxide products, the report of List of Budget Implementation, PSTA-Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional-Yogyakarta.

[2] Muzakky, and Supriyanto, C, 2016, Modification of three types of bentonite with zirconium oxide chloride (zoc) of local products using intercalation process, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (1), 14–19.

[3] Mnasri, S, and Frini-Srasra, N., 2013, Synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of zirconia-pillared bentonite for 1, 3-dioxalane synthesis, Surf. Eng. Appl. Electrochem., 49(4), 73–84.

[4] Fatimah, I., Wijaya, K., and Setyawan, K.H., 2008, Synthesis ZrO2-montmorillonite and application as catalyst in catalytic cracking of heavy fraction of crude oil, BCREC, 3 (1-3), 9–13.

[5] Fatimah, I., Preparation of ZrO2/Al2O3-montmorillonite composite as catalyst for phenol hydroxylation, 2014, J. Adv. Res., 5 (6), 663–670.

[6] Fatimah, I., Rubiyanto, D., Huda, T., Handayani, S., Ilahi, O.M., and Yudha, S.P., 2015, Ni dispersed on sulfated zirconia pillared montmorillonite as bifunctional catalyst in eco- friendly citronellal conversion, Eng. J., 19 (5), 43–53.

[7] Fatimah, I., Rubiyanto, D., and Kartika, N.C., 2016, Effect of calcination temperature on the synthesis of ZrO2-pillared saponite to catalytic activity in menthol esterification, Indones. J. Chem., 16 (1), 8–13.

[8] Utubira, Y., Wijaya, K., Triyono, and Kunarti, E.S., 2016, Microwave assisted preparation of zirconia-pillared bentonite, Int. J. ChemTech Res., 9 (4), 475–482.

[9] Bahranowski, K., Włodarczyk, W., Wisła-Walsh, E., Gaweł, A., Matusik, J., Klimek, A., Gil, B., Michalik-Zym, A., Dula, R., Socha, R.P., and Serwicka, E.M., 2015, [Ti,Zr]-pillared montmorillonite – A new quality with respect to Ti- and Zr-pillared clays, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 202, 155–164.

[10] Suseno, A., Wijaya, K., Trisunaryanti, W., Roto, and Priyono, 2017, The textural properties of Zirconia pillared Indonesian bentonite, Int. J. ChemTech Res., 10 (2),. 40–44.

[11] Chaabene, S.B., Bergaoui, L., and Ghorbel, A., 2004, Zirconium and sulfated zirconium pillared clays: A combined intercalation solution study and solid characterization, Colloids Surf., A, 251 (1-3), 109–115.

[12] Budi, S., 2005, Pembuatan zirkon Tetraklorida dari pasir zirkon dengan proses kering secara langsung, Jurnal Iptek Nuklir Ganendra, 8 (1), 15–22.

[13] Tuyen. N.V., Quang, V.T., Huong, T.G., and Anh, V.H., 2007, Preparation of high quality zirconium oxychloride from zircon of Vietnam, VAEC Ann. Rep., 7 (43), 286–291.

[14] Vance, E.R., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, Z., 2010, Diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of uranium in ZrO2 and Y2Ti2O7, J. Nucl. Mater., 400 (1), 8–14.

[15] Rinaldi, N, and Kristiani, A., 2017, Physicochemical of pillared clays prepared by several metal oxides, AIP Conf. Proc., 1823, 020063.

[16] Cecilia, J.A, García-Sancho, C., and Franco, F., 2013, Montmorillonite based porous clay heterostructures: Influence of Zr in the structure and acidic properties, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 176, 95–102.

[17] Elkhalifah, A.E.I., Maitra, S., Bustam, M.A., and Murugesan, T, 2013, Effects of exchanged ammonium cations on structure characteristics and CO2 adsorption capacities of bentonite clay, Appl. Clay Sci., 83-84, 391–398.

[18] Salem, .S., Salem, .A., and Babaei, A.A., 2015, Preparation and characterization of nano porous bentonite for regeneration of semi-treated waste engine oil: Applied aspects for enhanced recovery, Chem. Eng. J., 260, 368–376.

[19] Feng, Y., Li, X., Xu, K., Zou, H., Li, H., and Liang, B., 2015, Qualitative and simultaneous quantitative analysis of cimetidine polymorphs by ultraviolet–visible and shortwave near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate calibration models, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 104, 112–121.

[20] Zheng, Y., Liu, J., Hu, Q., and Cai, Q., 2014, Study on microstructure of muddy intercalation using SEM method, Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., 19, 9953–9963,.

[21] Muzakky, Wijaya, K., and Prayogo, I., 2013, Zirconia-intercalated bentonite as catalyst candidate I: Preparation and characterization of [Zr4(OH)14(H2O)10]2+ intercalated bentonite, Int. J. Appl. Chem., 9 (3), 243–252.

[22] Suseno, A., Wijaya, K, Trisunaryati, W., and Shidiq, M., 2016, Synthesis and characterization of ZrO2-pillared bentonites, Asian J. Chem., 27 (7), 2619–2623.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1077 | views : 1090

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.