Functionalization of Cellulose through Polyurethanization by the Addition of Polyethylene Glycol and Diisocyanate

Imam Prabowo(1*), Ghiska Ramahdita(2), Mochamad Chalid(3)

(1) Department Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16436, Indonesia
(2) Department Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16436, Indonesia
(3) Department Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16436, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Plastic consumption becomes a main factor of land pollution due to poor degradability. To reduce the impact of land pollution, a biodegradable material such as cellulose, which has biodegradability, high strength, and specific modulus, is combined with plastic materials. However, the combination result poor compatibility because of different properties. Through grafting technique, the compatibility can be improved. The experimental results were conducted using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR). The results revealed that the structure of hybrid material consists of cellulose as a chain extender in a hard segment which connects two diisocyanate compounds and polyol as a soft segment. The addition of 2.5 g of cellulose and 5 mole of diisocyanate can increase the melting temperature (Tm) of the hard segment from 417.92 to 460.72 °C and from 417.92 to 467.04 °C respectively. However, its melting temperatures of soft segment decrease from 378.53 to 350.74 °C and from 378.53 to 350.74 °C as well as the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the soft segment from 73.7 to 57.2 °C and from 73.7 to 71.8 °C. This study also discovers that cellulose and diisocyanate can raise thermal stability and create good interfacial bonding.


cellulose; chain extender; polyurethane; thermal stability; grafting technique

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M., Drzal, L.T., Selke, S.E., Harte, B.R., and Hinrichsen, G., 2005, Natural Fibers, Biopolymers, and Biocomposites: An Introduction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1–36.

[2] Randall, D., and Lee, S., (Eds.), 2003, The Polyurethanes Book, 1st ed., John Wiley & Sons, UK, 1–8.

[3] Chalid, M., 2012, Levulinic Acidas a Renewable Source for Novel Polymers, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Press, Groningen, 2–10.

[4] Saralegi, A., Gonzalez, M.L,. Valea, A., Eceiza, A., and Corcuera, M.A., 2004, The role of celulose nanocrystals in the improvement of the shape-memory properties of castor oil-based segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes, Compos. Sci. Technol., 92, 27–33.

[5] El-Shekeil, Y.A., Sapuan, S.M., Abdan, K., Zainudin, E.S., and Al-Shuja’a, O.M., 2012, Effect of PMDI isocyanate additive mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethanes composite, Bull. Mater. Sci., 35 (7), 1151–1155.

[6] Petrović, Z.S., and Ferguson, J, 1991, Polyurethane elastomers, Prog. Polym. Sci., 16 (5), 695–836.

[7] Firdaus, D.F., Masrudin, Lestari, D.A., Arbi, M.R., and Chalid, M., 2015, Structure and compatibility study of modified polyurethane/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for shape memory materials, Indones. J. Chem., 15 (2), 130–140.

[8] Paquet, O., Krouit, M., Bras, J., Thielemans, W., and Belgacem, M.N., 2010, Surface modification of cellulose by PCL grafts, Acta Mater., 58 (3), 792–801.

[9] Faruk, O., Bledzki, A.K., Fink, H.P., and Sain, M., 2012, Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers, Prog. Polym. Sci., 37 (11), 1552–1596.

[10] Thiruchitrambalam, M., Athijayamani, A., Sathiyamurthy, S., and Thaheer, A.S.B., 2010, A review on the natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites for the development of roselle fiber-reinforced polyester composite, J. Nat. Fibers, 7 (4), 307–323.

[11] Madsen, B., 2004, Properties of Plant Fibre Yarn Polymer Composites: An Experiment Study, Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.

[12] Samir, M.A.S.A., Alloin, F., and Dufresne, A., 2005, Review of recent research into cellulosic whiskers, their properties and their application in nanocomposite field, Biomacromolecules, 6 (2), 612–626.

[13] Heinze, T., and Petzold, K., 2008, “Cellulose Chemistry: Novel Products and Synthesis Paths” in Monomers, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources, Belgacem, M.N., and Gandini, A., Eds., Elsevier Science, 343–368.

[14] Chalid, M., and Prabowo, I., 2015, The effects of alkalization to the mechanical properties of ijuk fibers reinforced PLA biocomposites, Int. J. Chem. Mol. Nucl. Mater. Metal. Eng., 9 (2), 342–346.

[15] Yuanita, E., Pratama, J.N., Mustafa, J.H., and Chalid, M., 2015, Multistages preparation of microfibrillated cellulose based on Arenga pinnata “ijuk” fiber, Procedia Chem., 16, 608–615.

[16] Chalid, M., Yuanita, E., and Pratama, J.N., 2015, Study of alkalization to the crystallinity and the thermal behavior of Arenga pinnata “ijuk” fibers-based polylactic acid, Mater. Sci. Forum, 827, 326–331.

[17] Ramahdita, G., Ilmiati, S., Suryanegara, L., Khalid, A., and Chalid, M., 2017, Preparation and characterization for sorgum-based micro-fibrillated celluloses, Macromol. Symp., 371 (1), 69–74.

[18] Samain, X., Langlois, V., Renard, E., and Lorang, G., 2011, Grafting biodegradable polyesters onto cellulose, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 121 (2), 1183–1192.

[19] David, D.J., and Staley, H.B., 1969, Analytical Chemistry for Polyurethanes, vol. 16, Wiley Interscience, New York, 365-478.

[20] Pretsch, E., Bühlmann, P., and Badertscher, M, 2009, Structure Determination of Organic Compounds Tables of Spectral Data, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 10–17.

[21] Siqueira, G., Bras, J., and Dufresne, A., 2010, New process of chemical grafting of cellulose nanoparticles with a long chain isocyanate, Langmuir, 26 (1), 402–411.

[22] Pu, Y., Zhang, D., Singh, P.M., and Ragauskas, A.J., 2008, The new forestry biofuels sector, Biofuels Bioprod. Biorefin., 2 (1), 58–73.

[23] Zhang, C., Hu., J., and Wu, Y., 2014, Theoretical studies on hydrogen-bonding interactions in hard segments of shape memory polyurethane-III: Isophorone diisocyanate, J. Mol. Struct., 1072, 13–19.

[24] Sanches, A.O., Ricco, L.H.S., Malmonge, L.F., Michael, da Silva, M.J., Sakamoto, W.K., and Malmonge, J.A., 2014, Influence of cellulose nanofibrils on soft and hard segments of polyurethane/cellulose nanocomposites and effect of humidity on their mechanical properties. Polym. Test., 40, 99–105.

[25] George, J., Bhagawan, S.S., and Thomas, S., 1997, Effects of environment on the properties of low-density polyethylene composites reinforced with pineapple leaf fibre, Compos. Sci. Technol., 58 (9), 1471–1485.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 407 | views : 210

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.