Preparation of a New Cd(II)-Imprinted Polymer and Its Application to Preconcentration and Determination of Cd(II) Ion from Aqueous Solution by SPE-FAAS

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.27703

Teguh Wirawan(1*), Ganden Supriyanto(2), Agoes Soegianto(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mulawarman University, Samarinda 75119, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, East Java, Indonesia
(3) Study Program of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, East Java, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


A novel ion Imprinted polymer (IIP) material with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) (the complexing ligands), methacrylic acid (MAA) (the monomers), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) (the crosslinker agent), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and ethanol-acetonitrile (2:1) (the porogen) as adsorbent for the determination of cadmium by solid phase extraction–flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SPE-FAAS) has been synthesized. Synthesis of IIP was done by precipitation polymerization method. The imprinted Cd(II) ions were removed by leaching method using 1 mol L-1 nitric acid. The IIP was characterized by fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to ensure successful synthesis of IIP. The experimental parameters for SPE extraction, such as pH of the sample, loading rate, and elution rate, have been optimized. The optimum pH for quantitative Cd(II) retention was 6, and the elution was completed with 2 mL of 1.0 mol L-1 nitric acid. The optimum loading rate was 0.5 mL min-1. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method with theoretical enrichment factor 50 times has a detection limit of 0.5 µg L-1 and the recovery of 97.75%.

Keywords


Cadmium(II); solid phase extraction; ion imprinted polymer; preconcentration

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Veneu, D.M., Pino, G.A.H., Torem, M.L., and Saint’Pierre, T.D., 2012, Biosorptive removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using a Streptomyces lunalinharesii strain, Miner. Eng., 29, 112–120.

[2] Wang, K., Zhao, J., Li, H., Zhang, X., and Shi, H., 2016, Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon supported magnesium hydroxide, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 61, 287–297.

[3] Salah, T.A., Mohammad, A.M., Hassan, M.A., and El-Anadouli, B.E., 2014, Development of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite for cadmium ions removal in wastewater treatment, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 45 (4), 1571–1577.

[4] Mahmoud, M.E., and Haggag, S.M.S., 2011, Static removal of cadmium from aqueous and nonaqueous matrices by application of layer-by-layer chemical deposition technique, Chem. Eng. J., 166 (3), 916–922.

[5] Kula, I., Uğurlu, M., Karaoğlu, H., and Çelik, A., 2008, Adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation, Bioresour. Technol., 99 (3), 492–501.

[6] Waisberg, M., Joseph, P., Hale, B., and Beyersmann, D., 2003, Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis, Toxicology, 192 (2-3), 95–117.

[7] Christensen, T.H., and Lun, X.Z., 1989, A method for determination of cadmium species in solid waste leachates, Water Res., 23 (1), 73–80.

[8] Workman, S.M., and Lindsay, W.I., 1990, Estimating divalent cadmium activities measured in arid-zone soils using competitive chelation, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54 (4), 987–993.

[9] Pinto, L., and Lemos, S.G., 2013, Multivariate optimization of the voltammetric determination of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at bismuth film. Application to analysis of biodiesel, Microchem. J., 110, 417–424.

[10] Holm, P.E., Andersen, S., and Christensen, T.H., 1995, Speciation of dissolved cadmium: Interpretation of analysis, ion exchange, and computer (GEOCHEM) methods, Water Res., 29 (3), 803–809.

[11] Gupta, K.C., and D’Arc, M.J., 2000, Effect of concentration of ion exchanger, plasticizer and molecular weight of cyanocopolymers on selectivity and sensitivity of Cd(II) ion selective electrode, Talanta, 52 (6), 1087–1103.

[12] Bayen, S., Worms, I., Parthasaratly, N., Wilkinson, K., and Buffle, J., 2015, Cadmium bioavailability and speciation using the permeation liquid membrane, Anal. Chim. Acta, 575 (2), 267–273.

[13] Fan, H.T., Lu, Y., Liu, A.J., Jiang, B., Shen, H., Huang, C.C., and Li, W.X., 2015, A method for measurement of free cadmium species in waters using diffusive gradients in thin films technique with an ion-imprinted sorbent, Anal. Chim. Acta, 897, 24–33.

[14] Nolan, A.L., Mclaughlin, M.J., and Mason, S.D., 2003, Chemical speciation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in pore waters of agricultural and contaminated soils using Donnan dialysis, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37 (1), 90–98.

[15] Temminghoff, E.J.M., Plette, A.C.C., Eck, R.V., and Van Riemsdijk, W.H., 2000, Determination of the chemical speciation of trace metals in aqueous systems by the Wageningen Donnan Membrane Technique, Anal. Chim. Acta, 417 (2), 149–157.

[16] Camel, V., 2003, Solid phase extraction of trace elements, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 58, 1177–233.

[17] Wells, M.J.M., Riemer, D.D., and Wells-Knecht, M.C.., 1994, Development and optimization of a solid-phase extraction scheme for determination of the pesticide metribuzin, antrazine, metalochlor, and esfenvalerate in agricultural run off water, J. Chromatogr. A, 659 (2), 337–348.

[18] Johnson, W.E., Fendinger, N.J., and Plimmer, J.R., 1991, Solid phase extraction of pesticide from water: posible interferences from dissolved organic material, Anal. Chem., 63 (15), 1510–1513.

[19] Rao, T.P., Daniel, S., and Gladis, J.M., 2004, Tailored materials for preconcentration or separation of metals by ion-imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction (IIP-SPE), TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem., 23 (1), 28–35.

[20] Hennion, M.C., and Coquart, V., 1993, Comparation of reversed-phase extraction sorbents for on-line trace enrichment of polar organic compounds in environmental aqueous samples, J. Chromatogr. A, 642 (1-2), 211–224.

[21] Font, G., Manes, J., Molto, J.C., and Pico, Y., 1993, Solid-phase extraction in multi-residue pesticide analysis of water, J. Chromatogr. A, 642 (1-2), 135–161.

[22] Snyder, L.R., Kirkland, J.J., and Glajch, J.L., 1997, Practical HPLC Method Development, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

[23] Gawin, M., Konefał, J., Trzewik, B., Walas, S., Tobiasz, A., Mrowiec, H., and Witek, E., 2010, Preparation of a new Cd(II)-imprinted polymer and its application to determination of cadmium(II) via flow-injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry, Talanta, 80 (3), 1305–1310.

[24] Tsoi, Y.K., Ho, Y.M., and Leung, K.S., 2012, Selective recognition of arsenic by tailoring ion-imprinted polymer for ICP-MS quantification, Talanta, 89, 162–168.

[25] Özkütük, E.B., and Karabörk, M., 2007, Fe3+-Imprinted polymeric systems, Hacettepe J. Biol. Chem., 35 (3), 195–202.

[26] Utku, S., Yılmaz, E., Türkmen, D., Uzun, L., Garipcan, B., Say, R., and Denizli, A., 2008, Ion-imprinted thermosensitive polymers for Fe3+ removal from human plasma, Hacettepe J. Biol. Chem., 36 (4), 291–304.

[27] Buhani, Narsito, Nuryono, and Kunarti, E.S., 2010, Production of metal ion imprinted polymer from mercapto–silica through sol–gel process as selective adsorbent of cadmium, Desalination, 251 (1-3), 83–89.

[28] Singh, D.K., and Mishra, S., 2009, Synthesis, characterization and removal of Cd(II) using Cd(II)-ion imprinted polymer, J. Hazard. Mater., 164 (2-3), 1547–1551.

[29] Singh, D.K., and Mishra, S., 2010, Synthesis and characterization of Hg(II)-ion-imprinted polymer: Kinetic and isotherm studies, Desalination, 257 (1-3), 177–183.

[30] Dakova, I., Karadjova, I., Ivanov, I., Georgieva, V., Evtimora, B., and Georgiev, G., 2007, Solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cu(II) by Cu(II)-imprinted polymethacrylic microbeads, Anal. Chim. Acta, 584 (1), 196–203.

[31] Cai, X., Li, J., Zhang, Z., Yang, F., Dong, R., and Chen, L., 2014, Novel Pb2+ ion imprinted polymers based on ionic interaction via synergy of dual functional monomers for selective solid-phase extraction of Pb2+ in water samples, Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6 (1), 305–313

[32] Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Gao, J., Dai, J., Han, J., Wang, Y., Xie, J., and Yan, Y., 2011, Selective adsorption behavior of Pb(II) by mesoporous silica SBA-15-supported Pb(II)-imprinted polymer based on surface molecularly imprinting technique, J. Hazard. Mater., 186 (1), 197–205.

[33] Chunxiang, L., Gao, J., Pan, J., Zhang, Z, and Yan, Y., 2009, Synthesis, characterization, and adsorption performance of Pb(II)-imprinted polymer in nano-TiO2 matrix, J. Environ. Sci., 21 (12), 1722–1729.

[34] Shamsipur, M., Rajabi, H.R., Pourmortazavi, S.M., and Roushani, M., 2014, Ion imprinted polymeric nanoparticles for selective separation and sensitive determination of zinc ions in different matrices, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 117, 24–33.

[35] Kim, M., Jiang, Y., and Kim, D., 2013, Zn2+-imprinted porous polymer beads: Synthesis, structure, and selective adsorption behavior for template ion, React. Funct. Polym., 73 (6), 821–827.

[36] Barciela-Alonso, M.C., Plata-García, V., Rouco-López, A., Moreda-Piñeiro, A., and Bermejo-Barrera, P., 2014, Ionic imprinted polymer based solid phase extraction for cadmium and lead pre-concentration/determination in seafood, Microcim. J., 114, 106–110.

[37] Lee, S.H., Jung, C.H., Chung, H., Lee, M.Y., and Yang, T.W., 1998, Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by aplle residues, Process Biochem., 33 (2), 205–211.

[38] Doğan, M., Özdemir, Y., and Alkan, M., 2007, Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite, Dyes and Pigments, 75, 701-713.

[39] Al-Homaidan, A.A., Alabdullatif, J.A., Al-Hazzani, A.A., Al-Ghanayem, A.A., and Alabbad, A.F., 2015, Adsorptive removal of cadmium ions by Spirulina platensis dry biomass, Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 22 (6), 795–800.

[40] Shofiyani, A., Narsito, Santosa, S.J., Noegrohati, S., Zahara, T.A., and Sayekti, E., 2015, Cadmium adsorption on chitosan/chlorella biomass sorbent prepared by ionic imprinting technique, Indones. J. Chem., 15 (2), 163–171.

[41] Luo, C., Wei, R., Guo, D., Zhang, S., and Yan, S., 2013, Adsorption behavior of MnO2 functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions, Chem. Eng. J., 225, 406–415.

[42] Ebrahimzadeh, H., Behbahani, M., Yamini, Y., Adlnasab, L., and Asgharinezhad, A.K., 2013, Optimization Cu(II)-ion imprinted nanoparticles for trace monitoring of copper in water and fish samples using a Box-Behnken design, React. Funct. Polym., 73 (1), 23–29.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.27703

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 772 | views : 634


Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.