Synthesis and Characterization of Lignin-Based Polyurethane as a Potential Compatibilizer

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.27176

Salma Ilmiati(1*), Jana Hafiza(2), Jaka Fajar Fatriansyah(3), Elvi Kustiyah(4), Mochamad Chalid(5)

(1) Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(2) Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(3) Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Jl. Raya Perjuangan, Bekasi Utara 17121, West Java, Indonesia
(5) Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymer on earth. It has polar and non-polar side due to its hyperbranched structure, but the polarity of lignin has a higher tendency than non-polarity. Lignin has potential to be compatibilizer if the portion of non-polar can be increased. This research is focused on investigate the synthesis of lignin-based polyurethane to enhance the portion of non-polarity in lignin. Lignin-based polyurethane was prepared by reacting variation 4,4'-Methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), then lignin was added to the reaction. In this study, the structure of lignin-based polyurethane was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. NMR and FTIR showed that lignin successfully grafted. NMR, also used to investigate the variation molar mass of PEG and isocyanate contents effects to polarity of lignin-based polyurethane. The polarity of lignin-based polyurethane decrease as the composition of HMDI and molecular weight of PEG increase. This result also occurs on the sessile drop test that used to determine surface tension of lignin-based polyurethane. The thermal properties of lignin-based polyurethane also investigate using STA. Based on STA, enhancement of composition of HMDI and PEG increase thermal degradation and resistance of lignin-based polyurethane.

Keywords


synthesize; lignin; polyurethane

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Meredith, J.C., and Amis, E.J., 2000, LCST phase separation in biodegradable polymer blends: Poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone), Macromol. Chem. Phys., 201 (6), 733–739.

[2] Tuba, F., Oláh, L., and Nagya, P., 2011, Characterization of reactively compatibilized poly (D,L-lactide)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biodegradable blends by essential work of fracture method, Eng. Fract. Mech., 78 (17), 3123–3133.

[3] Ray, S.S., Bandyopadhyay, J., and Bousmina, M., 2007, Thermal and thermomechanical properties of poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] nanocomposite, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 92 (5), 802–812.

[4] Burns, K.L., Oldham, C.D., and May, S.W., 2009, Bacterial production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): An undergraduate student laboratory experiment, J. Chem. Edu., 86 (5), 603–605.

[5] Liu, Q.S., Zhu, M.F., Wu, W.H., and Qin, Z.Y., 2009, Reducing the formation of Six-membered ring ester during thermal degradation of biodegradable PHBV to enhance its thermal stability, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 94 (1), 18–24.

[6] Rozman, H.D., Tan K.W., Kumar, R.N., Abubakar, A., Ishak Z.A.M., and Ismail, H., 2000, The effect of lignin as a compatibilizer on the physical properties of coconut fiber–polypropylene composites, Eur. Polym. J., 37 (7), 1483–1494.

[7] Kun, D., and Pukánszky, B., 2017, Polymer/lignin blends: Interactions, properties, applications, Eur. Polym. J., 93, 618–641.

[8] Park, Y.T., Qian, Y., Lindsay, C.I., Nijs, C., Camargo, R.E., Stein, A., and Macosko, C.W., 2013, Polyol-assisted vermiculite dispersion in polyurethane nanocomposites, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5 (8), 3054–3062.

[9] Zhang, C., Madbouly, S.A., and Kessler, M.R., 2015, Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7 (2), 1226–1233.

[10] Li, W., Ryan, A.J., and Meier, I.K., 2002, Morphology development via reaction-induced phase separation in flexible polyurethane foam, Macromolecules, 35 (13), 5034–5042.

[11] Zhuohong, Y., Jinlian, H., Yeqiu, L., and Lapyan, Y., 2006, The study of crosslinked shape memory polyurethanes, Mater. Chem. Phys., 98 (2-3), 368–372.

[12] Hu, J., Yang, Z., Yeung, L., Ji, F., and Liu, Y., 2005, Crosslinked polyurethanes with shape memory properties, Polym. Int., 54 (5), 854–859.

[13] Chung, Y.C., Cho, T.K., and Chun, B.C., 2009, Flexible cross-linking by both pentaerythritol and polyethyleneglycol spacer and its impact on the mechanical properties and the shape memory effects of polyurethane, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 112 (5), 2800–2808.

[14] Izunobi, J.U., and Higginbotham, C.L., 2011, Polymer molecular weight analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy, J. Chem. Educ., 88 (8), 1098–1104.

[15] Lamour, G., Hamraoui, A., Buvailo, A., Xing, K., Keuleyan, S., Prakash, V., Eftekhari-Bafrooei, A., and Borguet, E., 2010, Contact angle measurements using a simplified experimental setup, J. Chem. Educ., 87 (12), 1403–1407.

[16] Skoog, D.A., and Leary, J.J., 1992, Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 4th Ed., Saunders College Publishing, Forth Worth, 801.

[17] Chalid, M., Heeres, H.J., and Broekhuis, A.A., 2012, Study of synthesis of novel ɤ-valerolactone-based polyurethanes, Appl. Mech. Mater., 229-231, 297–302.

[18] Chalid, M., 2011, Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethanes based on N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis-(4-hydroxy-pentanamide) and 4-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-pentanamide, Adv. Mater. Res., 277, 112–119.

[19] Chalid, M, Heeres, H.J., and Broekhuis, A.A., 2013, A study on the structure of novel polyurethanes derived from γ-valerolactone-based diol precursors, Adv. Mater. Res., 789, 274–278.

[20] Chalid, M., Heeres, H.J., and Broekhuis, A.A., 2015, Structure-mechanical and thermal properties relationship of novel γ-valerolactone-based polyurethanes, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 54 (3), 234–245.

[21] Tersac, M., 2007, Chemistry and technology of polyols for polyurethanes, Polym. Int., 56 (6), 820.

[22] Xue, B.L., Wen, J.L., Zhu, M.Q., and Sun, R.C., 2014, Lignin-based polyurethane film reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals, RSC Adv., 4, 36089–36096.

[23] Kumari, S., Chauhan, G.S., Monga, S., Kaushik, A., and Ahn, J.H., 2016, New lignin-based polyurethane foam for wastewater treatment, RSC Adv., 6 (81), 77768–77776.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.27176

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 654 | views : 776


Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.