Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in River Sediment of Jakarta


Rinawati Rinawati(1*), Hideshige Takada(2)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Jl. Soemantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia
(2) Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author


In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment) supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.


polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; organic micropollutant; water pollution

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Yang, W., Lang, Y., and Li, G., 2014, Cancer risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils from Jiaozhou Bay wetland, Chemosphere, 112, 289–295.

[2] Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Wang, H., Tao, S., and Kiyama, R., 2016, Biological impact of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ePAHs) as endocrine disruptors, Environ. Pollut., 213, 809–824.

[3] Sarigiannis, D.A., Karakitsios, S.P., Zikopoulos, D., Nikolaki, S., and Kermenidou, M., 2015, Lung cancer risk from PAHs emitted from biomass combustion, Environ. Res., 137, 147–156.

[4] Kim, K.H., Jahan, S.A., Kabir, E., and Brown, R.J.C., 2013, A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects, Environ. Int., 60, 71–80.

[5] Yuan, K., Wang, X., Lin, L., Zou, S., Li, Y., Yang, Q., and Luan, T., 2015, Characterizing the parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay and northern South China Sea: Influence of riverine input, Environ. Pollut., 199, 66–72.

[6] Montuori, P., Aurino, S., Garzonio, F., Sarnachiaro, P., Nardone, A., and Triassi, M., 2016, Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments from Tiber River and estuary, Italy, Sci. Total Environ., 566-567, 1254–1267.

[7] Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Piérard, C., and Garrigues, P., 1997, Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary, Mar. Chem., 58 (1-2), 85–97.

[8] Saha, M., Togo, A., Mizukawa, K., Murakami, M., Takada, H., Zakaria, M.P., Chiem, N.H., Tuyen, B.C., Prudente, M., Boonyatumanond, R., Sarkar, S.K., Bhattacharya, B., Mishra, P., and Tana, T.S., 2009, Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: Differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 58 (2), 189–200.

[9] Li, P., Xue, R., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., and Zhang, G., 2015, Influence of anthropogenic activities on PAHs in sediments in a significant gulf of low-latitude developing regions, the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: Distribution, sources, inventory and probability risk, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 90 (1-2), 218–226.

[10] Keshavarzifard, M., and Zakaria, M.P., 2015, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments from Port Dickson, Malaysia: Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment, Environ. Forensics, 16 (4), 322-332.

[11] Boonyatumanond, R., Wattayakorn, G., Togo, A., and Takada, H., 2006, Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 52 (8), 942–956.

[12] Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., and Garrigues, P., 1998, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean sea, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 17 (5), 765–776.

[13] Keshavarzifard, M., Zakaria, M.P., Hwai, T.S., Yusuff, F.M., Mustafa, S., Vaezzadeh, V., Magam, S.M., Masood, N., Alkhadher, S.A.A., and Abootalebi-Jahromi, F., 2014, Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 88 (1-2), 366–372.

[14] Keshavarzifard, M., Zakaria, M.P., Hwai, T.S., Yusuff, F.M., and Mustafa, S., 2015, Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 22 (12), 9424–9437.

[15] Vaezzadeh, V., Zakaria, M.P., Shau-Hwai, A.T., Ibrahim, Z.Z., Mustafa, S., Keshavarzifard, M., Magam, S.M., and Alkhadher, S.A.A., 2015, Source type evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Muar River and Pulau Merambong, Peninsular Malaysia, Environ. Forensics, 16 (2), 135–142.

[16] Zhang, D., Liu, J., Jiang, X., Cao, K., Yin, P., and Zhang, X., 2016, Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 102 (1), 223–229.

[17] Wang, C., Zou, X., Gao, J., Zhao, Y., Yu, W., Li, Y., and Song, Q., 2016, Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone, Chemosphere, 162, 80–90.

[18] Hussain, K., Balachandran, S., and Hoque, R.R., 2015, Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Bharalu River, a tributary of the River Brahmaputra in Guwahati, India, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 122, 61–67.

[19] Net, S., El-Osmani, R., Prygiel, E., Rabodonirina, S., Dumoulin, D., and Ouddane, B., 2015, Overview of persistent organic pollution (PAHs, Me-PAHs and PCBs) in freshwater sediments from Northern France, J. Geochem. Explor., 148, 181–188.

[20] Aldarondo-Torres, J.X., Samara, F., Mansilla-Rivera, I., Aga, D.S., and Rodríguez-Sierra, C.J., 2010, Trace metals, PAHs, and PCBs in sediments from the Jobos Bay area in Puerto Rico, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 60, 1350-1358.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.26837

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 865 | views : 943

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.