Synthesis and Kinetic Study of the Urea Controlled Release Composite Material: Sodium Lignosulfonate from Isolation of Wood Sawdust-Sodium Alginate-Tapioca

Arif Cahyo Imawan(1*), Yehezkiel Steven Kurniawan(2), Muhammad Fernadi Lukman(3), Jumina Jumina(4), Triyono Triyono(5), Dwi Siswanta(6)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


A synthesis and kinetic study of the urea controlled-release composite material based on isolated Na-lignosulfonate, Na-alginate and tapioca was carried out. This experiment’s aims were to isolate Na-lignosulfonate from wood sawdust and to applicate this isolated Na-lignosulfonate, along with tapioca and Na-alginate as urea control release composite material. A kinetic study of urea released from the composite materials was also conducted. Na-lignosulfonate was isolated by Kraft lignin method to give a brown solid yield of 16.92% and was characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometer and SEM-EDX. The composite materials were synthesized by blending urea as the active compound with composite material as the carrier compound. Three types of material were prepared: complete material (A), low-concentration Na-lignosulfonate material (B) and material without tapioca (C). The composite material had a spherical form with 0.79 mm radius and 2.16 mm swollen radius. Urea content inside material was 40.425 mg urea/g material. The urea diffusivity coefficient for material A, B, and C were 7.27 x 10–6; 15.50 x 10–6 and 0.94 x 10–6 m2 h–1, respectively. Modelling analysis showed the experiment obeyed around only 15% of the Korsmeyer–Peppas model, but there was good correlation (80%) with the unsteady-state diffusion model.


Na-lignosulfonate; urea; control release material; wood sawdust


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