Transesterification of Used Cooking Oil Using CaO/MCM-41 Catalyst Synthesized from Lapindo Mud by Sonochemical Method

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.26561

Ida Bagus Putra Mahardika(1), Wega Trisunaryanti(2*), Triyono Triyono(3), Dwi Putra Wijaya(4), Kumala Dewi(5)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Selatan, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Transesterification of waste cooking oil using CaO/MCM-41 synthesized from Lapindo mud by the sonochemical method has been carried out. The silica was separated from the mud by reflux method used 6 M HCl and 6 M NaOH. The silica was then analyzed by XRF and used as silica source in MCM-41 synthesis. The synthesis of MCM-41 was carried out by the sonochemical method, then analyzed by XRD, Infrared spectrophotometer, SAA, and TEM. The Ca2+ was loaded onto the MCM-41 by wet impregnation method under variation of the Ca2+ content of 1.15, 1.29, 2.39, and 3.25 wt.% analyzed by ICP produced CaO(1), CaO(2), CaO(3), and CaO(4)/MCM-41 catalyst respectively. Transesterification of used cooking oil was carried out under methanol/oil mole ratio of 15/1, the temperature of 55, 65 and 75 °C, and catalyst/oil weight ratio of 5/100, 10/100 and 15/100 for 2 h by reflux method. The XRD analysis of the MCM-41 showed a characteristic peak at 2θ = 2-5°. The MCM-41 has a specific surface area of 1290 m2/g and pore diameter of 3.4 nm. The TEM images of MCM-41 showed ordered pore distribution with a hexagonal shape. The highest conversion of methyl ester was 78.17 wt.% obtained under the reaction conditions at 65 °C and catalyst/oil weight ratio of 15/100 using the CaO(4)/MCM-41. The lifetime CaO(4)/MCM-41 catalyst was 9.8 h.

Keywords


Lapindo mud; sonochemical; MCM-41; transesterification; CaO/MCM-41

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Knothe, G., 2000, Monitoring a progressing transesterification reaction by fiber-optic near infrared spectroscopy with correlation to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77 (5), 489–493.

[2] Lotero, E., Liu, Y., Lopez, D.E., Suwannakarn, K., Bruce, D.A., and Goodwin, J.G., 2005, Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (14), 5353–5363.

[3] Santiago-Torres, N., C., Romero-Ibarra, I.C., and Pfeiffer, H., 2014, Sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3) as a catalyst in a soybean oil transesterification reaction for biodiesel production, Fuel Process. Technol., 120, 34–39.

[4] Chen, D., Sharma, S.K., and Mudhoo, A., 2012, Handbook on Application Ultrasound Sonochemistry for Sustainability, CRC Press, New York.

[5] Sun, Y., Lin, W., Chen, J., Yue, Y., and Pang, W., 1997, New routes for synthesizing mesoporous material, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., 105, 77–84.

[6] Reddy, C.R.V., Oshel, R., and Verkade, J.G., 2006, Room-temperature conversion of soybean oil and poultry fat to biodiesel catalyzed by nanocrystalline calcium oxides, Energy Fuels, 20 (3), 1310–1314.

[7] Xie, C., Liu, F., Yu, S., Xie, F., Li, L., Zhang, S., and Yang, J., 2008, Catalytic cracking of polypropylene into liquid hydrocarbons over Zr and Mo modified MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve, Catal. Commun., 10 (1), 79–82.

[8] Vyas, P.A., Subrahmanyam, N., and Patel, P.A., 2009, Production of biodiesel through transesterification of Jatropha oil using KNO3/Al2O3 solid catalyst, Fuel, 88, 625–628.

[9] Kouzu, M., and Hidaka, J., 2012, Transesterification of vegetable oil into biodiesel catalyzed by CaO: A review, Fuel, 93, 1–12.

[10] Samart, C., Chaiya, C., and Reubroycharoen, P., 2010, Biodiesel production by methanolysis of soybean oil using calcium supported on mesoporous silica catalyst, Energy Convers. Manage., 51 (7), 1428–1431.

[11] Verziu, M., Coman, S.M., Richards, R., and Parvulescu, V.I., 2011, Transesterification of vegetable oils over CaO catalysts, Catal. Today, 167 (1), 64–70.

[12] Sharma, Y.C., Singh, B., and Korstad, J., 2011, Latest developments on application of heterogenous basic catalysts for an efficient and eco friendly synthesis of biodiesel: A review, Fuel, 90, 1309–1324.

[13] Beck, J.S., Vartuli, J.C., Roth, W.J., Leonowicz, M.E., Kresge, C.T., Schmitt, K.D., Chu, C.T.W., Olson, D.H., Sheppard, E.W., McCullen, S.B., Higgins, J.B., and Schlenker, J.L., 1992, A new family of mesoporous molecular sieves prepared with liquid crystal templates, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114 (27), 10834–10843.

[14] Lee, C.K., Liu, S.S., Juang, L.C., Wang, C.C., Lin, K.S., and Lyu, M.D., 2007, Application of MCM-41 for dyes removal from wastewater, J. Hazard. Mater., 147 (3), 997–1005.

[15] Tang, X., Liu, S., Wang, Y., Huang, W., Sominski, E., Palchik, O., Koltypin, Y., and Gedanken, A., 2000, Rapid synthesis of high quality MCM-41 silica with ultrasound radiation, Chem. Commun., 21, 2119–2120.

[16] Deka, J.R., Vetrivel, S., Wu, H.Y., Pan, Y.C., Ting, C.C., Tsai, Y.L., and Kao, H.M., 2014, Rapid sonochemical synthesis of MCM-41 type benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas, Ultrason. Sonochem., 21 (1), 387–394.

[17] Yılmaz, M.S., Özdemir, Ö.D., and Pişkin, S., 2013, Synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 with different methods and adsorption of Sr2+ on MCM-41, Res. Chem. Intermed., 41 (1), 199–211.

[18] Vetrivel, S., Chen, C.T., and Kao, H.M., 2010, The ultrafast sonochemical synthesis of mesoporous silica MCM-41, New J. Chem., 34 (10), 2109–2112.

[19] Ifah, A.A., Trisunaryanti, W., Triyono, and Dewi, K., 2016, Synthesis of MCM-41 NH2 catalyst by sonochemical method for transesterification of waste palm oil, Int. J. ChemTech Res., 9, 382–387.

[20] Chiarakorn, S., Areerob, T., and Grisdanurak, N., 2007, Influence of functional silanes on hydrophobicity of MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., 8, 110–115.

[21] Triyono, T., Khoiri, H.M., Trisunaryanti, W., and Dewi, K., 2015, Synthesis of NH2/MCM-41-catalyst using silica of Sidoarjo mud and their characterization for palm oil transesterification, IOSR-JAC, 8 (8), 50–56

[22] Kresge, C.T., Leonowicz, M.E., Roth, W.J., Vartuli, J.C., And Beck, J.S., 1992, Ordered mesoporous molecular sieves synthesized by a liquid-crystal template mechanism, Nature, 359, 710–712.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.26561

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 693 | views : 752


Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.